pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-224586
(To Prospectus dated May 16, 2018)
20,940,000 Shares of Common Stock
We are offering 20,940,000 shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, or Common Stock, pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Our Common Stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TNXP.” On July 10, 2020, the last reported sale price of our Common Stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Market was $0.64 per share.
Pursuant to the stock purchase agreement dated as of July 13, 2020, by and between us and the purchasers identified therein, any purchaser that purchases shares of our Common Stock in this offering in excess of $100,000, as a condition to such purchase, agrees to vote the shares of our Common Stock that they own or control on the record date of the stockholder meeting (or any postponement, adjournment or reconvening thereof) at which our stockholders consider and vote upon a proposal to approve an amendment to our articles of incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of our Common Stock from 150,000,000 to 400,000,000, as previously approved by our board of directors. We currently expect that this proposal will be submitted to our stockholders when the meeting held and adjourned on June 26, 2020, is reconvened, which we anticipate will be within a few months after the closing of this offering. As previously announced, the record date for the adjourned meeting will be reset.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before buying any of our securities, you should carefully read the discussion of material risks of investing in our securities under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and page 2 of the accompanying prospectus.
We have engaged A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners (“AGP”) to act as our sole placement agent in connection with this offering. The placement agent has agreed to use its reasonable best efforts to place the securities offered by this prospectus supplement. We have agreed to pay the placement agent the fees set forth in the table below.
|Public offering price||$||0.50||$||10,470,000|
|Placement agents’ fees(1)||$||0.035||$||
|Proceeds, before expenses, to us||$||0.465||$||9,737,100|
In addition, we have agreed to reimburse the placement agents for certain offering-related expenses. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Delivery of the shares of Common Stock is expected to be made on or about July 15, 2020, subject to customary closing conditions.
Sole Placement Agent
The date of this prospectus is July 13, 2020
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT||S-1|
|PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY||S-4|
|USE OF PROCEEDS||S-8|
|PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION||S-10|
|WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION||S-11|
|INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE||S-12|
|ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS||1|
|DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS||28|
|USE OF PROCEEDS||29|
|THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER||29|
|DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK||30|
|DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS||31|
|DESCRIPTION OF UNITS||33|
|WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION||35|
|INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE||36|
No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representations. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is current only as of their respective dates.
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference therein filed prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date-for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus-the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, or incorporated by reference herein. We have not authorized, and the placement agents have not authorized, anyone to provide you with information that is different. The information contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, or incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of the respective dates thereof, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or of any sale of our Common Stock. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus, respectively.
We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, the securities offered by this prospectus supplement only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the Common Stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.
When used herein, unless the context requires otherwise, references to the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp., a Nevada corporation.
All trademarks or trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend the use or display of other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement contain, and our officers and representatives may from time to time make, “forward-looking statements,” which include information relating to future events, future financial performance, financial projections, strategies, expectations, competitive environment and regulation. Words such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “future,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates,” “goal,” “seek,” “project,” “strategy,” “likely,” and similar expressions, as well as statements in future tense, identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are neither historical facts, nor should they be read as a guarantee of future performance or results and may not be accurate indications of when such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information we have when those statements are made or management’s good faith belief as of that time with respect to future events, and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual performance or results to differ materially from those expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause such differences include, but are not limited to:
|●||our ability to continue to operate despite our history of operating losses and expectation that we will continue to incur operating losses for the foreseeable future;|
|●||our current and future capital requirements to support our development efforts and our ability to satisfy our capital needs;|
|●||our ability to obtain FDA approval for any of our product candidates;|
|●||our ability to maintain or protect the validity of our patents and other intellectual property;|
|●||our ability to retain key executives and medical and science personnel;|
|●||the timing and progress of clinical development of our product candidates;|
|●||our ability to internally develop new inventions and intellectual property;|
|●||interpretations of current laws and the passages of future laws;|
|●||acceptance of our business model by investors;|
|●||the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses and capital requirements;|
|●||our ability to adequately support growth; and|
|●||our ability to advance our clinical development programs could be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.|
The foregoing does not represent an exhaustive list of matters that may be covered by the forward-looking statements contained herein and in the documents incorporated by reference herein or risk factors that we are faced with that may cause our actual results to differ from those anticipate in our forward-looking statements. Please see “Risk Factors” for additional risks which could adversely impact our business and financial performance.
Moreover, new risks regularly emerge and it is not possible for our management to predict or articulate all risks we face, nor can we assess the impact of all risks on our business or the extent to which any risk, or combination of risks, may cause actual results to differ from those contained in any forward-looking statements. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, do not protect any forward-looking statements that we make in connection with this offering. All forward-looking statements included in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus are based on information available to us on the date of this prospectus or the date of the applicable document incorporated by reference. Except to the extent required by applicable laws or rules, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained above and throughout this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
IN ADDITION TO THE ABOVE RISKS, BUSINESSES ARE OFTEN SUBJECT TO RISKS NOT FORESEEN OR FULLY APPRECIATED BY OUR MANAGEMENT. IN REVIEWING THIS PROSPECTUS AND THE DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE IN THIS PROSPECTUS, POTENTIAL INVESTORS SHOULD KEEP IN MIND THAT THERE MAY BE OTHER POSSIBLE RISKS THAT COULD BE IMPORTANT.
This summary highlights selected information about us, this offering and information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, in the accompanying prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein. This summary is not complete and does not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our securities pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Before making an investment decision, to fully understand this offering and its consequences to you, you should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including “Risk Factors,” the financial statements, and related notes, and the other information incorporated by reference herein and therein.
When used herein, unless the context requires otherwise, references to the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp., a Nevada corporation.
All trademarks or trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend the use or display of other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, licensing, acquiring and developing small molecules and biologics to treat and prevent human disease and alleviate suffering. Our portfolio is primarily composed of central nervous system (CNS) and immunology product candidates. Our immunology portfolio includes vaccines to prevent infectious diseases and biologics to address immunosuppression, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Our CNS portfolio includes both small molecules and biologics to treat pain, neurologic, psychiatric and addiction conditions. Our lead vaccine candidate, TNX-1800, in the pre-Investigational New Drug (IND) stage of development, is based on the horsepox viral vector platform to protect against COVID-19, primarily by eliciting a T cell response. We expect data from animal studies of TNX-1800 in the fourth quarter of 2020. TNX-801, live horsepox virus vaccine for percutaneous administration, in the pre-IND stage of development, is in development to protect against smallpox and monkeypox and serves as the vector platform on which TNX-1800 is based. Our lead CNS candidate, TNX-102 SL, is in Phase 3 development for the management of fibromyalgia. We expect results from an optional unblinded interim analysis in September 2020 and topline data in the fourth quarter of 2020. TNX-102 SL is also in development for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease and alcohol use disorder (AUD). The agitation in Alzheimer’s disease program is Phase 2 ready with FDA Fast Track designation, and the development program for AUD is in the IND application stage. Our programs for treating addiction conditions also include TNX-1300 (T172R/G173Q double-mutant cocaine esterase 200 mg, i.v. solution), which is in Phase 2 development for the treatment of cocaine intoxication and has FDA Breakthrough Therapy designation. TNX-601 CR (tianeptine oxalate controlled-release tablets) is another CNS program, currently in the pre-IND and Phase 1 development as a daytime treatment for depression while TNX-1900, intranasal oxytocin, is in the pre-IND and Phase 2 development as a non-addictive treatment for migraine and cranio-facial pain.
Our preclinical pipeline includes TNX-1600 (triple reuptake inhibitor), a new molecular entity being developed as a treatment for PTSD, TNX-1500 (anti-CD154), a monoclonal antibody being developed to prevent and treat organ transplant rejection and autoimmune conditions, and TNX-1700 (rTFF2), a biologic being developed to treat gastric and pancreatic cancers.
We have assembled a management team with significant industry experience to lead the development of our product candidates. We complement our management team with a network of scientific, clinical, and regulatory advisors that includes recognized experts in their respective fields.
Overview of Lead Product Candidates
TNX-1800 – Potential COVID-19 Vaccine
TNX-1800 is a potential vaccine for the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, based on a modified version of live horsepox virus grown in cell culture. TNX-1800 is designed to express the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19. Our plan is to test whether vaccination with TNX-1800 will elicit an immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and if so, whether such an immune response will protect against COVID-19.
TNX-1800 is based on Tonix’s proprietary horsepox vector platform. Horsepox is closely related to vaccinia vaccines, which are a group of orthopoxviruses that have been used as smallpox vaccines and as experimental vectors for certain other disease-related antigens. Under the terms of the research collaboration, Southern Research will test TNX-1800 for its ability to express the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and elicit immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in animals. We expect to receive data from these experiments in the fourth quarter of 2020. The further development of TNX-1800 for clinical trials will require manufacturing according to Good Manufacturing Practice, or GMP, standards and sufficient animal testing.
Horsepox and vaccinia are closely related orthopoxviruses that are believed to share a common ancestor. Orthopoxviruses, like vaccinia, can be engineered to express foreign genes and have been explored as platforms for vaccine development because they: (1) possess large packaging capacity for exogenous DNA inserts, (2) possess precise virus-specific control of exogenous gene insert expression, (3) have a lack of persistence or genomic integration in the host, (4) possess strong immunogenicity as a vaccine, (5) possess the ability to rapidly generate vector/insert constructs, (6) have the potential to be manufactured at industrial scale, and (7) possess the ability to provide direct antigen presentation. Although vaccinia vectors are available, different orthopoxvirus strains may behave differently as vectors in part because of their different repertoire of genes that modulate immune responses and host range. Potential advantages of horsepox-based vaccines include the strong immunogenicity we observed for TNX-801 in macaques and mice with good tolerability. The protein synthesis connected with a replicating live virus vaccine provides direct antigen presentation, which can stimulate cellular immunity in addition to humoral immunity.
There is much effort currently being invested into methods of providing vaccines to protect against COVID-19, but there is still much unknown about the biology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the methods, if any, of producing a protective immune response. For example, based on studies of a related coronavirus diseases, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, from 2003, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, from 2012, there is potential risk that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 may potentiate, rather than protect against, infection in some individuals. This phenomenon is called antibody-mediated enhancement. Safety tests will be required to ensure that antibody mediated enhancement, if present, does not compromise protection for any potential COVID-19 vaccine.
We recently filed a provisional patent on TNX-1800’s technology. In addition, we expect TNX-1800 to be eligible for 12 years of non- patent-based exclusivity under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or PPACA.
TNX-801 – Potential Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine
TNX-801 is a novel potential smallpox-preventing vaccine based on a synthetic version of live horsepox virus, grown in cell culture. Though it shares structural characteristics with vaccinia-based vaccines, TNX-801 has unique properties that we believe indicate potential safety advantages over existing live replicating vaccinia virus vaccines, which have been associated with adverse side effects such as myopericarditis in some individuals. Emergent BioSolutions’ ACAM2000® is the only replicating vaccinia virus vaccine currently approved by the FDA to protect against smallpox. We believe replicating virus vaccines have potential efficacy advantages over non-replicating vaccines, relating to the stimulation of cell mediated immunity. Bavarian Nordic’s Jynneos® is the only non-replicating virus vaccine currently approved by the FDA to protect against smallpox and monkeypox. We believe TNX-801 has the potential to have improved tolerability relative to replicating vaccinia vaccines and the potential to have improved efficacy relative to non-replicating vaccinia vaccines.
Smallpox was eradicated by a World Health Organization program that vaccinated individuals with live replicating vaccinia vaccines wherever smallpox appeared. In the 1970s, vaccination of civilians to protect against smallpox was discontinued in the U.S.; however, smallpox remains a material threat to national security and a proportion of military personnel, including members of the Global Response Force, continue to be vaccinated. We are developing TNX-801 as a potential smallpox-preventing vaccine for the U.S. strategic national stockpile and for potential widespread immunization in the event of malicious reintroduction of variola, the virus that causes smallpox. Monkeypox is a growing problem in certain regions of Africa. Some cases of monkeypox have been reported outside of Africa in patients who had been infected while in Africa.
In January 2020 at the American Society of Microbiology Biothreats conference, we reported the results of experiments on TNX-801 that were performed in collaboration with Southern Research that showed TNX-801 vaccinated macaques were protected against monkeypox challenge. The TNX-801 vaccinated macaques showed no overt clinical signs after monkeypox challenge. Furthermore, eight of eight animals vaccinated with two different doses of TNX-801 showed no lesions after monkeypox challenge.
We have filed a patent to protect the TNX-801 vaccine. In addition, we expect that TNX-801 will be eligible for 12 years of non-patent-based exclusivity under the PPACA. Following the passage of the 21st Century Cures Act, a law designed to help accelerate medical product development, we believe TNX-801 will qualify as a medical countermeasure, and would therefore be eligible for a Priority Review Voucher upon receiving FDA approval. However, the Priority Review Voucher program provision of the 21st Century Cures Act is set to expire in 2023. If TNX- 801 does not receive FDA approval by 2023, we may not be able to capitalize on the incentives contained in the 21st Century Cures Act unless the provision allowing for the Priority Review Voucher Program is extended until such time as TNX-801 is licensed by the FDA.
We intend to meet with the FDA to discuss the most efficient and appropriate investigational plan, to establish the safety and effectiveness evidence to support the licensure TNX-801. We are currently working to develop a vaccine that meets cGMP quality to support a clinical study.
TNX-102 SL – Fibromyalgia (FM)
TNX-102 SL is a small, rapidly disintegrating tablet containing CBP for sublingual administration. TNX-102 SL employs a proprietary protective eutectic formulation of CBP, Protectic™, which enables rapid systemic exposure and increased bioavailability through transmucosal absorption. We are developing TNX-102 SL for the management of FM. TNX-102 SL for FM is a non-opioid, centrally-acting analgesic that could potentially provide a new therapeutic option for FM patients. In September 2016, we interrupted the development of TNX-102 SL for the management of FM to focus on the treatment of PTSD. Our previous development efforts for TNX-102 SL in FM studied the 2.8 mg dose in a Phase 2 and a Phase 3 study. Based on our experience with higher doses of TNX-102 SL, 5.6 mg, in PTSD, we restarted the clinical program in FM using TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg. We met with the FDA in March 2019 to discuss the clinical development plan and the next Phase 3 study design to support the FM indication. We received clear guidance from the FDA to advance FM using TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg and are currently testing this dose in the Phase 3 RELIEF (F304) study which started enrolling patients in December 2019. We plan to conduct an interim analysis, or IA, pending the FDA’s agreement, and we expect IA results from this study in September 2020 and topline data in the fourth quarter of 2020.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider all of the information in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference prior to investing in our securities. These risks are discussed more fully in the section titled “Risk Factors” herein and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:
|●||We have incurred significant losses and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.|
|●||The known and unknown impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on us;|
|●||Our profitability depends on our ability to develop and commercialize our current and future product candidates.|
|●||Our ability to continue as a going concern will require us to obtain additional financing to fund our current operations, which may be unavailable on acceptable terms, or at all.|
|●||Because our product candidates are in the clinical stage of development, there is a high risk of failure, and we may never succeed in developing marketable products or generating product revenue.|
|●||We may encounter substantial delays in our clinical trials, or our clinical trials may fail to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates to the satisfaction of applicable regulatory authorities.|
|●||It may be difficult for us to predict the time and cost of product development. Unforeseen problems may prevent further development or approval of our product candidates.|
|●||We will require substantial additional financing to achieve our goals, and a failure to obtain necessary capital when needed would force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.|
|●||We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to conduct preclinical studies and clinical trials for our product candidates, and if they do not properly and successfully perform their obligations to us, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates.|
|●||We face substantial competition from other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before, or more successfully, than we do.|
|●||It is difficult and costly to protect our proprietary rights, and we may not be able to ensure their protection. If our patent position and other intellectual property rights do not adequately protect our product candidates, others could compete against us (including directly), which could materially harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.|
We were incorporated on November 16, 2007 under the laws of the State of Nevada as Tamandare Explorations Inc. On October 11, 2011, we changed our name to Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. Our principal executive offices are located at 509 Madison Avenue, Suite 1608, New York, New York 10022, and our telephone number is (212) 980-9155. Our website addresses are www.tonixpharma.com, www.tonix.com, and www.krele.com. The information on our websites is not part of this prospectus. We have included our website addresses as a factual reference and do not intend them to be active links to our websites.
|Common Stock offered by us in this offering||20,940,000 shares|
|Offering price per share||$0.50|
|Common Stock outstanding immediately before this offering||104,803,906 shares|
|Common Stock outstanding immediately after this offering||125,743,906 shares|
|Investor Agreement||Pursuant to the stock purchase agreement dated as of July 13, 2020, by and between us and the purchasers identified therein, any purchaser that purchases shares of our Common Stock in this offering in excess of $100,000, as a condition to such purchase, agrees to vote the shares of our Common Stock that they own or control on the record date of the stockholder meeting (or any postponement, adjournment or reconvening thereof) at which our stockholders consider and vote upon a proposal to approve an amendment to our articles of incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of our Common Stock from 150,000,000 to 400,000,000, as previously approved by our board of directors. We currently expect that this proposal will be submitted to our stockholders when the meeting held and adjourned on June 26, 2020, is reconvened, which we anticipate will be within a few months after the closing of this offering. As previously announced, the record date for the adjourned meeting will be reset.|
|Use of proceeds||We plan to use the net proceeds of this offering for the acquisition and build out of research and development capabilities, including a facility in Massachusetts, working capital and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”|
|Risk factors||You should carefully read and consider the information beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement and page 2 of the accompanying prospectus set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and all other information set forth in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference before deciding to invest in our securities.|
|Nasdaq Global Market symbol||“TNXP”|
The number of shares of Common Stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 104,803,906 shares of Common Stock outstanding at July 10, 2020 and excludes the following:
|●||10,021,786 shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.98 per share;|
|●||5,184,210 shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of warrants outstanding at a weighted-average exercise price of $4.55 per share;|
|●||643,750 shares of Common Stock reserved and available for issuance under our equity compensation plan; and|
|●||300,000 shares of Common Stock reserved and available for issuance under our employee stock purchase plan.|
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risk factors we describe in this prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you or in any report incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, or any Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. Although we discuss key risks in those risk factor descriptions, additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business. Our subsequent filings with the SEC may contain amended and updated discussions of significant risks. We cannot predict future risks or estimate the extent to which they may affect our financial performance.
Risks Related to This Offering
Management will have broad discretion as to the use of the proceeds from this offering, and we may not use the proceeds effectively.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our Common Stock. Moreover, a portion of the proceeds from this offering is expected to be used for the acquisition build out of research and development capabilities, including a facility in Massachusetts to enable R&D functions associated with expanding our portfolio of immunology candidates. However, there can be no guarantee that we will acquire such a facility and we have never built out such a facility. Our failure to apply these and any of the funds from this offering effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business and cause the price of our Common Stock to decline.
You may experience dilution as a result of future equity offerings and other issuances of our Common Stock or other securities. In addition, this offering and future equity offerings and other issuances of our Common Stock or other securities may adversely affect our Common Stock price.
In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our Common Stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our Common Stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may not be able to sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our Common Stock or securities convertible into Common Stock in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering. You will incur dilution upon exercise of any outstanding stock options, warrants or upon the issuance of shares of Common Stock under our stock incentive programs. In addition, the sale of shares in this offering and any future sales of a substantial number of shares of our Common Stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the price of our Common Stock. We cannot predict the effect, if any, that market sales of those shares of Common Stock or the availability of those shares of Common Stock for sale will have on the market price of our Common Stock.
An active trading market for our Common Stock may not be sustained.
Although our Common Stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market, the market for our Common Stock has demonstrated varying levels of trading activity. Furthermore, the current level of trading may not be sustained in the future. The lack of an active market for our Common Stock may impair investors’ ability to sell their shares at the time they wish to sell them or at a price that they consider reasonable, may reduce the fair market value of their shares and may impair our ability to raise capital to continue to fund operations by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire additional intellectual property assets by using our shares as consideration.
Our stock price may be subject to substantial volatility, and stockholders may lose all or a substantial part of their investment.
Our Common Stock currently trades on The Nasdaq Global Market. There is limited public float, and trading volume historically has been low and sporadic. As a result, the market price for our Common Stock may not necessarily be a reliable indicator of our fair market value. The price at which our Common Stock trades may fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including the number of shares available for sale in the market, quarterly variations in our operating results, actual or anticipated announcements of new releases by us or competitors, the gain or loss of significant customers, changes in the estimates of our operating performance, market conditions in our industry and the economy as a whole.
Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Common Stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.
We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our Common Stock. We currently intend to retain earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, only appreciation of the price of our Common Stock will provide a return to our stockholders.
Certain provisions of the stock purchase agreement executed in connection with this offering could result in the approval of the issuance of additional shares of Common Stock or preferred stock without stockholder approval or other antitakeover measures.
Pursuant to the stock purchase agreement executed by purchasers in this offering, certain purchasers who purchase in excess of $100,000 of our Common Stock have agreed to vote the shares held by them on the record date of the stockholder meeting (or any postponement, adjournment or reconvening thereof) at which our stockholders consider and vote upon a proposal to approve an amendment to our articles of incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of our Common Stock from 150,000,000 to 400,000,000, as previously approved by our board of directors. We currently expect that this proposal will be submitted to our stockholders when the meeting held and adjourned on June 26, 2020, is reconvened, which we anticipate will be within a few months after the closing of this offering. If the requisite stockholders vote for approval of such proposal is obtained, our board of directors will have the right to issue the additional shares of Common Stock created through such increase in authorized shares. The issuance of such additional shares of Common Stock may be used as an “anti-takeover” device without further action on the part of our stockholders, and may adversely affect the holders of the Common Stock.
USE OF PROCEEDS
Based upon the public offering price of $0.50 per share of Common Stock, we estimate that the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered under this prospectus supplement, after deducting placement agents’ fees and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us will be approximately $9.6 million.
We currently expect to use the net proceeds from this offering for the acquisition and build out of research and development capabilities, including a facility in Massachusetts, working capital and other general corporate purposes.
Although we may use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering for the acquisition or licensing, as the case may be, of additional technologies, other assets or businesses, or for other strategic investments or opportunities, except as set forth above we have no current understandings, agreements or commitments to do so.
Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on a number of factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, general business conditions, and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. In addition, the terms of our revolving credit facility place certain limitations on the amount of cash dividends we can pay, even if no amounts are currently outstanding.
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners has agreed to act as sole placement agent in connection with this offering. The placement agent is not purchasing or selling any of the shares of our Common Stock offered by this prospectus supplement, but will use its reasonable best efforts to arrange for the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement. We have entered into a securities purchase agreement directly with investors in connection with this offering. We will make offers only to a limited number of accredited investors. The offering is expected to close on or about July 15, 2020, subject to customary closing conditions, without further notice to you.
Fees and Expenses
We have agreed to pay the placement agent a placement agent’s fee equal to 7.0% of the aggregate purchase price of the shares of our Common Stock sold in this offering. The following table shows the per share and total cash placement agent’s fees we will pay to the placement agent in connection with the sale of the shares of our Common Stock offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
|Public offering price||$||0.50||$||10,470,000|
|Placement agent’s fees(1)||$||0.035||$||732,900|
|Proceeds to us before expenses||$||
|(1)||We have also agreed to reimburse the placement agent for certain expenses. See below.|
In addition, we have agreed to reimburse the placement agent’s expenses up to $50,000 upon closing the offering. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us will be approximately $150,000.
The placement agent may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act, and any commissions received by it and any profit realized on the resale of the shares sold by it while acting as a principal might be deemed to be underwriting discounts or commissions under the Securities Act. As an underwriter, the placement agent would be required to comply with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including, without limitation, Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act and Rule 10b-5 and Regulation M under the Exchange Act. These rules and regulations may limit the timing of purchases and sales of shares by the placement agent acting as a principal. Under these rules and regulations, the placement agent:
|●||may not engage in any stabilization activity in connection with our securities; and|
|●||may not bid for or purchase any of our securities or attempt to induce any person to purchase any of our securities, other than as permitted under the Exchange Act, until they have completed their participation in the distribution.|
Our Common Stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TNXP.” On July 10, 2020, the last reported sale price of our Common Stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Market was $0.64 per share.
We have agreed to indemnify the placement agent and other specified persons against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, and to contribute to payments that the placement agent may be required to make in respect of such liabilities.
Stock Purchase Agreement With Respect to Increase in the Authorized Number of Shares of Common Stock
Pursuant to the stock purchase agreement dated as of July 13, 2020, by and between us and the purchasers identified therein, any purchaser that purchases shares of our Common Stock in this offering in excess of $100,000, agrees to vote the shares of our Common Stock that they own or control on the record date of the stockholder meeting (or any postponement, adjournment or reconvening thereof) at which our stockholders consider and vote upon a proposal to approve an amendment to our articles of incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of our Common Stock from 150,000,000 to 400,000,000, as previously approved by our board of directors. We currently expect that this proposal will be submitted to our stockholders when the meeting held and adjourned on June 26, 2020, is reconvened, which we anticipate will be within a few months after the closing of this offering. As previously announced, the record date for the adjourned meeting will be reset.
The placement agent or its affiliates may in the future engage in transactions with, and may perform, from time to time, investment banking and advisory services for us in the ordinary course of their business and for which it would receive customary fees and expenses. In addition, in the ordinary course of its business activities, the placement agent and its affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for its own account and for the accounts of its customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates.
Specifically, on March 3, 2020, we sold an aggregate of 14,550,000 shares of our Common Stock to the public at a public offering price of $1.10 per share. A.G.P. acted as sole placement agent for this offering. In connection with the offering, we paid A.G.P. approximately $1.17 million in discounts and expense reimbursement. In addition, on February 11, 2020, we sold an aggregate of 3,837,000 Class A Units consisting of an aggregate of 3,837,000 shares of our Common Stock and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 3,837,000 shares of our Common Stock, as well as 5,313 Class B Units, with each Class B Unit offered to the public at a public offering price of $1,000 per Class B Unit and consisting of one share of the Company’s Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, with a stated value of $1,000 and convertible into 1,754.386 shares of Common Stock at the conversion price of $0.57 per share (9,321,052 shares of Common Stock in the aggregate), and one warrant to purchase 1,754.386 shares of Common Stock at an exercise price equal to $0.57 per share of Common Stock (9,321,052 shares of Common Stock in the aggregate). A.G.P. acted as sole underwriter for this offering. In connection with the offering, we paid A.G.P. approximately $655,006 in discounts and expense reimbursement.
The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP, Las Vegas, Nevada. The placement agent is being represented by Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., New York, New York.
The consolidated balance sheets of Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years then ended have been audited by EisnerAmper LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is incorporated herein, which report includes an explanatory paragraph about the existence of substantial doubt concerning the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Such financial statements are incorporated herein in reliance on the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the shares of Common Stock being offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information in the registration statement and its exhibits. For further information with respect to us and the Common Stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and its exhibits. Statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus as to the contents of any contract or any other document referred to are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of the contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. Each of these statements is qualified in all respects by this reference.
We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and we file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These periodic reports, proxy statements and other information are available for inspection and copying at the public reference room and website of the SEC referred to above. We maintain a website at http://www.tonixpharma.com. You may access our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act with the SEC free of charge at our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference in, and is not part of, this prospectus, and any references to this website or any other website are inactive textual references only. You may also request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing us at 509 Madison Avenue, Suite 1608, New York, New York 10022 or calling us at (212) 980-9155.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN information BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, as filed with the Commission on March 24, 2020;
|●||our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 12, 2020;|
|●||our definitive Proxy Statements on Schedule 14A, filed on March 30, 2020 and May 15, 2020;|
|●||our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed on January 6, 2020, January 13, 2020, January 16, 2020, January 23, 2020, January 24, 2020, January 29, 2020, February 5, 2020, February 7, 2020, February 10, 2020, February 11, 2020, February 26, 2020, February 28, 2020, March 3, 2020, March 20, 2020, March 24, 2020, April 8, 2020, April 13, 2020, April 20, 2020, April 22, 2020, April 24, 2020, May 1, 2020, May 7, 2020, May 8, 2020, May 12, 2020, May 15, 2020, May 19, 2020, May 21, 2020, June 1, 2020, June 5, 2020, June 10, 2020, June 11, 2020, June 18, 2020, June 19, 2020, June 22, 2020, June 29, 2020, July 7, 2020, July 10, 2020, July 13, 2020 and July 14, 2020 (other than any portions thereof deemed furnished and not filed); and|
|●||the description of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, contained in our Form 8-A filed on July 23, 2013.|
In addition, all documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, prior to the termination of the offering (excluding any information furnished rather than filed) shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Notwithstanding the statements in the preceding paragraphs, no document, report or exhibit (or portion of any of the foregoing) or any other information that we have “furnished “ to the SEC pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended shall be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including exhibits to these documents. You should direct any requests for documents to:
Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.
509 Madison Avenue, Suite 1608
New York, New York 10022
Attention: Investor Relations
Telephone (212) 980-9155
You also may access these filings on our website at http://www.tonixpharma.com. We do not incorporate the information on our website into this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus (other than those filings with the SEC that we specifically incorporate by reference into this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus).
Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement.
We may offer and sell, from time to time in one or more offerings, any combination of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, or units having an aggregate initial offering price not exceeding $75,000,000. The preferred stock, warrants, and units may be convertible or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock or preferred stock or other securities of ours.
Each time we sell a particular class or series of securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as the documents incorporated by reference or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, carefully before you invest in any securities.
This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement relating to the offered securities.
Our common stock is presently listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “TNXP”. On April 30, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $3.12. Each prospectus supplement will indicate if the securities offered thereby will be listed on any securities exchange.
These securities may be sold directly by us, through dealers or agents designated from time to time, to or through underwriters or dealers or through a combination of these methods on a continuous or delayed basis. See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. We may also describe the plan of distribution for any particular offering of our securities in a prospectus supplement. If any agents, underwriters or dealers are involved in the sale of any securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, we will disclose their names and the nature of our arrangements with them in a prospectus supplement. The net proceeds we expect to receive from any such sale will also be included in a prospectus supplement.
Investing in our securities involves various risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement, and in the risks discussed in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement, as they may be amended, updated or modified periodically in our reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. You should carefully read and consider these risk factors before you invest in our securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
This prospectus is dated , 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS||1|
|DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS||28|
|USE OF PROCEEDS||29|
|THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER||29|
|DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK||30|
|DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS||31|
|DESCRIPTION OF UNITS||33|
|WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION||35|
|INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE||36|
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings from time to time having an aggregate initial offering price of $75,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide you with a prospectus supplement that describes the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities we offer. The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read carefully both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described below under the caption “Where You Can Find More Information.”
This prospectus does not contain all the information provided in the registration statement we filed with the SEC. You should read both this prospectus, including the section titled “Risk Factors,” and the accompanying prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or a prospectus supplement. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus is not an offer to sell securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, as well as information we have previously filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference, is accurate as of the date on the front of those documents only. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
Except where the context otherwise requires, the terms, “we,” “us,” “our” or “the Company,” refer to the business of Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp., a Nevada corporation and its wholly-owned subsidiaries.
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering and developing pharmaceutical products to treat serious neuropsychiatric conditions and to improve biodefense through the development of potential medical counter-measures. Our most advanced drug development program is focused on delivering a safe and effective long-term treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. PTSD is characterized by chronic disability, inadequate treatment options, high utilization of healthcare services, and significant economic burden. We have assembled a management team with significant industry experience to lead the development of our product candidates. We complement our management team with a network of scientific, clinical, and regulatory advisors that includes recognized experts in the fields of PTSD, other central nervous system disorders and biodefense.
Our lead product candidate, Tonmya, or TNX-102 SL, a proprietary low-dose cyclobenzaprine, or CBP, sublingual tablet, designed for bedtime administration, is in Phase 3 development as a potential treatment for PTSD. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has conditionally accepted the proposed trade name Tonmya for TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD. TNX-102 SL is also being developed as a treatment for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease, or AAD, under a separate Investigational New Drug, or IND, application, which has been cleared to support a Phase 2, potential pivotal efficacy study. Our development pipeline includes: TNX-601 (tianeptine oxalate), a pre-IND candidate, designed for daytime administration as a potential treatment of PTSD and for cognitive dysfunction associated with steroid use; TNX-801, a potential smallpox-preventing vaccine based on a live synthetic version of horsepox virus, or HPXV; TNX-301, an IND candidate for the treatment of alcohol use disorder, or AUD; and TNX-701, a biodefense development program for protection from radiation injury. We hold worldwide development and commercialization rights to all of our product candidates.
We were incorporated on November 16, 2007 under the laws of the State of Nevada as Tamandare Explorations Inc. On October 11, 2011, we changed our name to Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. Our principal executive offices are located at 509 Madison Avenue, Suite 306, New York, New York 10022, and our telephone number is (212) 980-9155. Our website addresses are www.tonixpharma.com, www.tonix.com, and www.krele.com. The information on our websites is not part of this prospectus. We have included our website addresses as a factual reference and do not intend them to be active links to our websites.
You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with any risks set forth in our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, before making an investment decision. The risks described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks we are not presently aware of or that we currently believe are immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business could be harmed by any of these risks. The trading price of our common stock could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. In assessing these risks, you should also refer to the other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS
We have a history of operating losses and expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future. We may never generate revenues or, if we are able to generate revenues, achieve profitability.
We are focused on product development, and we have not generated any revenues to date. We have incurred losses in each year of our operations, and we expect to continue to incur operating losses for the foreseeable future. These operating losses have adversely affected and are likely to continue to adversely affect our working capital, total assets and stockholders’ equity.
We and our prospects should be examined in light of the risks and difficulties frequently encountered by new and early-stage companies in new and rapidly evolving markets. These risks include, among other things, the speed at which we can scale up operations, our complete dependence upon development of our product candidates that currently have no market acceptance, our ability to establish and expand our brand name, our ability to expand our operations to meet the commercial demand of our clients, our development of and reliance on strategic and customer relationships and our ability to minimize fraud and other security risks.
The process of developing our products requires significant clinical, nonclinical and CMC development, laboratory testing and clinical studies. In addition, commercialization of our product candidates will require that we obtain necessary regulatory approvals and establish sales, marketing and manufacturing capabilities, either through internal hiring or through contractual relationships with others. We expect to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future as a result of anticipated increases in our research and development costs, including costs associated with conducting preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies, and regulatory compliance activities.
We expect to incur substantial additional operating expenses over the next several years as our research, development, preclinical and nonclinical testing, and clinical study activities increase. The amount of future losses and when, if ever, we will achieve profitability are uncertain. We have no products that have generated any commercial revenue, do not expect to generate revenues from the commercial sale of products in the near future, and might never generate revenues from the sale of products. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability will depend on, among other things, successful completion of the development of our product candidates; obtaining necessary regulatory approvals from the FDA; establishing manufacturing, sales, and marketing arrangements with third parties; successfully commercializing our products; establishing a favorable competitive position; and raising sufficient funds to finance our activities. Many of these factors will depend on circumstances beyond our control. We might not succeed at any of these undertakings. If we are unsuccessful at some or all of these undertakings, our business, prospects, and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
We have a limited operating history and we expect a number of factors to cause our operating results to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, which may make it difficult to predict our future performance.
We are a development-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history. Our operations to date have been primarily limited to developing our technology and undertaking preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies of our clinical-stage product candidate, Tonmya for PTSD. We have not yet obtained regulatory approvals for Tonmya or any of our other product candidates. Consequently, any predictions made about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history or commercialized products. Our financial condition has varied significantly in the past and will continue to fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter or year-to-year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Factors relating to our business that may contribute to these fluctuations include other factors described elsewhere in this annual report and also include, among other things:
|●||our ability to obtain additional funding to develop our product candidates;|
|●||delays in the commencement, enrollment and timing of clinical studies;|
|●||the success of our clinical studies through all phases of clinical development, including studies of our most advanced product candidate Tonmya for PTSD;|
|●||any delays in regulatory review and approval of product candidates in clinical development;|
|●||our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval for our product candidate Tonmya for PTSD or any of our other product candidates in the United States and foreign jurisdictions;|
|●||potential nonclinical toxicity and/or side effects of our product candidates that could delay or prevent commercialization, limit the indications for any approved drug, require the establishment of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, or cause an approved drug to be taken off the market;|
|●||our ability to establish or maintain collaborations, licensing or other arrangements;|
|●||market acceptance of our product candidates;|
|●||competition from existing products or new products that may emerge;|
|●||the ability of patients or healthcare providers to obtain coverage of or sufficient reimbursement for our products;|
|●||our ability to leverage our proprietary technology platform to discover and develop additional product candidates;|
|●||our ability and our licensors’ abilities to successfully obtain, maintain, defend and enforce intellectual property rights important to our business; and|
|●||potential product liability claims.|
Accordingly, the results of any quarterly or annual periods should not be relied upon as indications of future operating performance.
RELATED TO PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, REGULATORY APPROVAL,
MANUFACTURING AND COMMERCILAIZATION
Our product candidates are novel and still in development.
We are a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company focused on the development of drug product candidates, all of which are still in development. Our drug development methods may not lead to commercially viable drugs for any of several reasons. For example, we may fail to identify appropriate targets or compounds, our drug candidates may fail to be safe and effective in clinical studies, or we may have inadequate financial or other resources to pursue development efforts for our drug candidates. Our drug candidates will require significant additional development, clinical studies, regulatory clearances and additional investment by us or our collaborators before they can be commercialized.
Further, we and our product candidates are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and comparable regulatory authorities in other countries governing, among other things, research, testing, clinical studies, manufacturing, labeling, promotion, selling, adverse event reporting and recordkeeping. We are not permitted to market any of our product candidates in the United States until we receive approval of an NDA for a product candidate from the FDA or the equivalent approval from a foreign regulatory authority. Obtaining FDA approval is a lengthy, expensive and uncertain process. We currently have one product candidate, Tonmya, in Phase 3 development for the treatment of PTSD, and the success of our business currently depends on its successful development, approval and commercialization. Any projected sales or future revenue predictions are predicated upon FDA approval and market acceptance of Tonmya. If projected sales do not materialize for any reason, it would have a material adverse effect on our business and our ability to continue operations.
As we have no approved products on the market, we do not expect to generate any revenues from product sales in the foreseeable future, if at all.
To date, we have no approved product on the market and have generated no product revenues. We have funded our operations primarily from sales of our securities. We have not received, and do not expect to receive for at least the next couple of years, if at all, any revenues from the commercialization of our product candidates. To obtain revenues from sales of our product candidates, we must succeed, either alone or with third parties, in developing, obtaining regulatory approval for, manufacturing and marketing drugs with commercial potential. We may never succeed in these activities, and we may not generate sufficient revenues to continue our business operations or achieve profitability.
We are largely dependent on the success of our clinical-stage product candidate, Tonmya for PTSD, and we cannot be certain that this product candidate will receive regulatory approval or be successfully commercialized.
Tonmya has not completed the clinical development process; therefore, we have not yet submitted an NDA or foreign equivalent or received marketing approval for this product candidate anywhere in the world. The clinical development program for Tonmya for PTSD may not lead to commercial products for a number of reasons, including if we fail to obtain necessary approvals from the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities because our clinical studies fail to demonstrate to their satisfaction that this product candidate is safe and effective or a clinical program may be put on hold due to unexpected safety issues. We may also fail to obtain the necessary approvals if we have inadequate financial or other resources to advance our product candidates through the clinical study process. Any failure or delay in completing clinical studies or obtaining regulatory approvals for Tonmya for PTSD in a timely manner would have a material adverse impact on our business and our stock price.
Successful development of our products is uncertain.
Our development of current and future product candidates is subject to the risks of failure and delay inherent in the development of new pharmaceutical products, including: delays in product development, clinical testing, or manufacturing; unplanned expenditures in product development, clinical testing, or manufacturing; failure to receive regulatory approvals; emergence of superior or equivalent products; inability to manufacture on its own, or through any others, product candidates on a commercial scale; and failure to achieve market acceptance.
Because of these risks, our research and development efforts may not result in any commercially viable products. If a significant portion of these development efforts are not successfully completed, required regulatory approvals are not obtained or any approved products are not commercially successfully, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially harmed.
Clinical studies required for our product candidates are expensive and time-consuming, and their outcome is uncertain.
In order to obtain FDA approval to market a new pharmaceutical product, we must demonstrate proof of safety and effectiveness in humans. To meet these requirements, we must conduct “adequate and well controlled” clinical studies. Conducting clinical studies is a lengthy, time-consuming, and expensive process. The length of time may vary substantially according to the type, complexity, novelty, and intended use of the product candidate, and often can be several years or more per study. Delays associated with products for which we are directly conducting clinical studies may cause us to incur additional operating expenses. The commencement and rate of completion of clinical studies may be delayed by many factors, including, for example: inability to manufacture sufficient quantities of stable and qualified materials under cGMP, for use in clinical studies; slower than expected rates of patient recruitment; failure to recruit a sufficient number of patients; modification of clinical study protocols; changes in regulatory requirements for clinical studies; the lack of effectiveness during clinical studies; the emergence of unforeseen safety issues; delays, suspension, or termination of the clinical studies due to the ITB responsible for overseeing the study at a particular study site; and government or regulatory delays or “clinical holds” requiring suspension or termination of the studies.
The results from early clinical studies are not necessarily predictive of results obtained in later clinical studies. Accordingly, even if we obtain positive results from early clinical studies, we may not be able to confirm the results in future clinical studies. For example, in a Phase 3 trial for a product candidate for fibromyalgia, we were not able replicate the results we received from the Phase 2b trial for this product candidate, and as a result discontinued this program. Clinical studies may not demonstrate sufficient safety and effectiveness to obtain the requisite regulatory approvals for product candidates.
Our clinical studies may be conducted in patients with CNS conditions, and in some cases, our product candidates are expected to be used in combination with approved therapies that themselves have significant adverse event profiles. During the course of treatment, these patients could suffer adverse medical events or die for reasons that may or may not be related to our product candidates. We cannot ensure that safety issues will not arise with respect to our product candidates in clinical development.
The failure of clinical studies to demonstrate safety and effectiveness for the desired indications could harm the development of that product candidate and other product candidates. This failure could cause us to abandon a product candidate and could delay development of other product candidates. Any delay in, or termination of, our clinical studies would delay the filing of our NDAs with the FDA and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate product revenues. Any change in, or termination of, our clinical studies could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are subject to extensive and costly government regulation.
Product candidates employing our technology are subject to extensive and rigorous domestic government regulation including regulation by the FDA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, other divisions of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, the United States Department of Justice, state and local governments, and their respective foreign equivalents. The FDA regulates the research, development, preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies, manufacture, safety, effectiveness, record-keeping, reporting, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale, distribution, import, and export of biopharmaceutical products. The FDA regulates small molecule chemical entities as drugs, subject to an NDA under the FDCA. The FDA applies the same standards for biologics, requiring an IND application, followed by a Biologic License Application, or BLA, prior to licensure. Other products, such as vaccines, are also regulated under the Public Health Service Act. FDA has conflated the standards for approval of NDAs and BLAs so that they require the same types of information on safety, effectiveness, and CMCs. If products employing our technologies are marketed abroad, they will also be subject to extensive regulation by foreign governments, whether or not they have obtained FDA approval for a given product and its uses. Such foreign regulation may be equally or more demanding than corresponding United States regulation.
Government regulation substantially increases the cost and risk of researching, developing, manufacturing, and selling our products. The regulatory review and approval process, which includes preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies of each product candidate, is lengthy, expensive, and uncertain. We or our collaborators must obtain and maintain regulatory authorization to conduct clinical studies. We or our collaborators must obtain regulatory approval for each product we intend to market, and the manufacturing facilities used for the products must be inspected and meet legal requirements. Securing regulatory approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical, nonclinical and clinical data and other supporting information for each proposed therapeutic indication in order to establish the product’s safety and efficacy, and in the case of biologics also potency and purity, for each intended use. The development and approval process takes many years, requires substantial resources, and may never lead to the approval of a product.
Even if we are able to obtain regulatory approval for a particular product, the approval may limit the indicated medical uses for the product, may otherwise limit our ability to promote, sell, and distribute the product, may require that we conduct costly post-marketing surveillance, and/or may require that we conduct ongoing post-marketing studies. Material changes to an approved product, such as, for example, manufacturing changes or revised labeling, may require further regulatory review and approval. Once obtained, any approvals may be withdrawn, including, for example, if there is a later discovery of previously unknown problems with the product, such as a previously unknown safety issue.
If we, our collaborators, or our CMOs fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements at any stage during the regulatory process, such noncompliance could result in, among other things delays in the approval of applications or supplements to approved applications; refusal of a regulatory authority, including the FDA, to review pending market approval applications or supplements to approved applications; warning letters; fines; import and/or export restrictions; product recalls or seizures; injunctions; total or partial suspension of production; civil penalties; withdrawals of previously approved marketing applications or licenses; recommendations by the FDA or other regulatory authorities against governmental contracts; and/or criminal prosecutions.
We do not have, and may never obtain, the regulatory approvals we need to market our product candidates.
Following completion of clinical studies, the results are evaluated and, depending on the outcome, submitted to the FDA in the form of an NDA or BLA in order to obtain FDA approval of the product and authorization to commence commercial marketing. In responding to an NDA, the FDA may require additional testing or information, may require that the product labeling be modified, may impose post-approval study and other commitments or reporting requirements or other restrictions on product distribution, or may deny the application. The FDA has established performance goals for review of NDAs or BLAs: six months for priority applications and ten months for standard applications. However, the FDA is not required to complete its review within these time periods. The timing of final FDA review and action varies greatly but can take years in some cases and may involve the input of an FDA advisory committee of outside experts. Product sales in the United States may commence only when an NDA or BLA is approved.
To date, we have not applied for or received the regulatory approvals required for the commercial sale of any of our products in the United States or in any foreign jurisdiction. None of our product candidates have been determined to be safe and effective, and we have not submitted an NDA or BLA to the FDA or an equivalent application to any foreign regulatory authorities for any of our product candidates.
It is possible that none of our product candidates will be approved for marketing. Failure to obtain regulatory approvals, or delays in obtaining regulatory approvals, may adversely affect the successful commercialization of any drugs or biologics that we or our partners develop, may impose additional costs on us or our collaborators, may diminish any competitive advantages that we or our partners may attain, and/or may adversely affect our receipt of revenues or royalties.
We have limited experience in completing a Phase 3 clinical study and have never submitted an NDA before, and may be unable to do so for Tonmya or other product candidates we are developing.
We initiated a Phase 3 study in military-related PTSD in the first quarter of 2017. As this study is intended to provide efficacy and safety evidence to support marketing approval by the FDA, it is considered a pivotal, confirmatory or registration, study. The conduct of pivotal clinical studies and the submission of a successful NDA is a complicated process. Although members of our management team have extensive industry experience, including in the development and clinical testing of drug candidates and the commercialization of drug, we have conducted only one pivotal clinical study before (the AFFIRM study in fibromyalgia participants), have limited experience in preparing, submitting and prosecuting regulatory filings, and have not submitted an NDA before. Consequently, we may be unable to successfully and efficiently execute and complete this planned clinical study in a way that leads to NDA submission and approval of Tonmya and other product candidates we are developing. We may require more time and incur greater costs than our competitors and may not succeed in obtaining regulatory approvals of product candidates that we develop. Failure to commence or complete, or delays in, our planned clinical studies would prevent or delay commercialization of Tonmya and other product candidates we are developing.
Our product candidates may cause SAEs or undesirable side effects which may delay or prevent marketing approval, or, if approval is received, require them to be taken off the market, require them to include safety warnings or otherwise limit their sales.
SAEs or undesirable side effects from Tonmya or any of our other product candidates could arise either during clinical development or, if approved, after the approved product has been marketed. The results of future clinical studies, including Tonmya, may show that our product candidates cause SAEs or undesirable side effects, which could interrupt, delay or halt clinical studies, resulting in delay of, or failure to obtain, marketing approval from the FDA and other regulatory authorities.
If Tonmya or any of our other product candidates cause SAEs or undesirable side effects or suffer from quality control issues:
|●||regulatory authorities may impose a clinical hold or risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, or REMS, which could result in substantial delays, significantly increase the cost of development, and/or adversely impact our ability to continue development of the product;|
|●||regulatory authorities may require the addition of statements, specific warnings, or contraindications to the product label, or restrict the product’s indication to a smaller potential treatment population;|
|●||we may be required to change the way the product is administered or conduct additional clinical studies;|
|●||we may be required to implement a risk minimization action plan, which could result in substantial cost increases and have a negative impact on our ability to commercialize the product;|
|●||we may be required to limit the participants who can receive the product;|
|●||we may be subject to limitations on how we promote the product;|
|●||we may, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate field alerts for product recall, which may result in shortages;|
|●||sales of the product may decrease significantly;|
|●||regulatory authorities may require us to take our approved product off the market;|
|●||we may be subject to litigation or product liability claims; and|
|●||our reputation may suffer.|
Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected product or could substantially increase commercialization costs and expenses, which in turn could delay or prevent us from generating significant revenues from the sale of our products.
If a competing drug shows efficacy in military-related PTSD prior to the FDA approval of Tonmya or if Tonmya fails to confirm the results of the AtEase Phase 2 study in showing activity in military-related PTSD in the Phase 3 HONOR study, then the FDA may rescind the Breakthrough Therapy designation.
In December 2016, the FDA granted Tonmya for PSTD Breakthrough Therapy designation based on several factors, including that Tonmya has the potential to be an improvement over existing therapies for military-related PTSD. If another therapy is shown to be effective in military-related PTSD before FDA approval of Tonmya, then the FDA may rescind the designation. In addition, if Tonmya fails to confirm the activity from the AtEase study in treating military-related PTSD, then the FDA may rescind the Breakthrough Therapy designation.
Breakthrough Therapy designation for Tonmya may not lead to faster development or regulatory processes nor does it increase the likelihood that Tonmya will receive marketing approval for PTSD.
There is no guarantee that the receipt of Breakthrough Therapy designation will result in a faster development, review or approval process for Tonmya for PTSD or increase the likelihood that Tonmya will be granted marketing approval for PTSD. In some cases, the development program for the Breakthrough Therapy could be shorter than for other drugs intended to treat the disease being studied. However, the FDA notes that a compressed drug development program still must generate adequate data to demonstrate that the drug is safe, effective and meets the statutory standard for approval. Breakthrough Therapy designation does not change the standards for approval. If a clinical development program granted Breakthrough Therapy designation does not continue to meet the criteria, the FDA may rescind the designation.
Likewise, any future Breakthrough Therapy designation for any other potential indication of TNX-102 SL neither guarantees a faster development process, review or approval nor improves the likelihood of the granting of marketing approval by the FDA for any such potential indication of TNX-102 SL compared to drugs considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures. We may seek a Breakthrough Therapy designation for other of our product candidates, but the FDA may not grant this status to any of our proposed product candidates.
If we are unable to file for approval of Tonmya under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA or if we are required to generate additional data related to safety and efficacy in order to obtain approval under Section 505(b)(2), we may be unable to meet our anticipated development and commercialization timelines.
Our current plans for filing NDAs for our product candidates include efforts to minimize the data we will be required to generate in order to obtain marketing approval for our product candidates and therefore reduce the development time. We held a pre-IND meeting with the FDA in October 2012 to discuss the development of Tonmya in PTSD. Following the results of the AtEase Study, we held an End-of-Phase 2/Pre-Phase 3 meeting with the FDA in August 2016 to discuss our most advanced development program, in which we are developing Tonmya for the treatment of PTSD. In March 2017, we had our initial Cross-disciplinary Breakthrough Therapy meeting with the FDA to discuss ways to expedite the development and NDA submission of Tonmya. Although our interactions with the FDA have encouraged our efforts to continue to develop Tonmya for PTSD, there is no assurance that we will satisfy the FDA’s requirements for approval in this indication. The timeline for filing and review of our NDA for Tonmya for PTSD is based on our plan to submit this NDA under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA, which would enable us to rely in part on data in the public domain or elsewhere. We have not yet filed an NDA under Section 505(b)(2) for any of our product candidates. Depending on the data that may be required by the FDA for approval, some of the data may be related to products already approved by the FDA. If the data relied upon is related to products already approved by the FDA and covered by third-party patents we would be required to certify that we do not infringe the listed patents or that such patents are invalid or unenforceable. As a result of the certification, the third-party would have 45 days from notification of our certification to initiate an action against us.
In the event that an action is brought in response to such a certification, the approval of our NDA could be subject to a stay of up to 30 months or more while we defend against such a suit. Approval of our product candidates under Section 505(b)(2) may therefore be delayed until patent exclusivity expires or until we successfully challenge the applicability of those patents to our product candidates. Alternatively, we may elect to generate sufficient additional clinical data so that we no longer rely on data which triggers a potential stay of the approval of our product candidates. Even if no exclusivity periods apply to our applications under Section 505(b)(2), the FDA has broad discretion to require us to generate additional data on the safety and efficacy of our product candidates to supplement third-party data on which we may be permitted to rely. In either event, we could be required, before obtaining marketing approval for any of our product candidates, to conduct substantial new research and development activities beyond those we currently plan to engage in order to obtain approval of our product candidates. Such additional new research and development activities would be costly and time consuming.
We may not be able to realize a shortened development timeline for Tonmya for PTSD, and the FDA may not approve our NDA based on their review of the submitted data. If CBP-containing products are withdrawn from the market by the FDA for any safety reason, we may not be able to reference such products to support a 505(b)(2) NDA for Tonmya, and we may need to fulfill the more extensive requirements of Section 505(b)(1). If we are required to generate additional data to support approval, we may be unable to meet our anticipated development and commercialization timelines, may be unable to generate the additional data at a reasonable cost, or at all, and may be unable to obtain marketing approval of our lead product candidate.
Even if approved, our products will be subject to extensive post-approval regulation.
Once a product is approved, numerous post-approval requirements apply. Among other things, the holder of an approved NDA is subject to periodic and other FDA monitoring and reporting obligations, including obligations to monitor and report adverse events and instances of the failure of a product to meet the specifications in the NDA. Application holders must submit new or supplemental applications and obtain FDA approval for certain changes to the approved product, product labeling, or manufacturing process. Application holders must also submit advertising and other promotional material to the FDA and report on ongoing clinical studies.
Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet these post-approval requirements can result in criminal prosecution, fines, injunctions, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of pre-marketing product approvals, or refusal to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts. In addition, even if we comply with FDA and other requirements, new information regarding the safety or effectiveness of a product could lead the FDA to modify or withdraw product approval.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval to market our product candidates, our product candidates may not be accepted by the market.
Even if the FDA approves one or more of our product candidates, physicians and patients may not accept it or use it. Even if physicians and patients would like to use our products, our products may not gain market acceptance among healthcare payors such as managed care formularies, insurance companies or government programs such as Medicare or Medicaid. Acceptance and use of our products will depend upon a number of factors including: perceptions by members of the health care community, including physicians, about the safety and effectiveness of our drug or device product; cost-effectiveness of our product relative to competing products; availability of reimbursement for our product from government or other healthcare payors; and effectiveness of marketing and distribution efforts by us and our licensees and distributors, if any.
The degree of market acceptance of any pharmaceutical product that we develop will depend on a number of factors, including:
|●||the safety and effectiveness of our products, including any significant potential side effects (including drowsiness and dry mouth), as compared to alternative products or treatment methods;|
|●||the timing of market entry as compared to competitive products;|
|●||the rate of adoption of our products by doctors and nurses;|
|●||product labeling or product insert required by the FDA for each of our products;|
|●||reimbursement policies of government and third-party payors;|
|●||effectiveness of our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and the effectiveness of such capabilities of our collaborative partners, if any; and|
|●||unfavorable publicity concerning our products or any similar products.|
Because we expect sales of our current product candidates, if approved, to generate substantially all of our product revenues for the foreseeable future, the failure of these products to find market acceptance would harm our business and could require us to seek additional financing.
We may use our financial and human resources to pursue a particular research program or product candidate and fail to capitalize on programs or product candidates that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
Because we have limited financial and human resources, we are currently focusing on the regulatory approval of Tonmya for PTSD. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on existing and future product candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through strategic alliance, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate, or we may allocate internal resources to a product candidate in a therapeutic area in which it would have been more advantageous to enter into a partnering arrangement.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR FINANCIAL CONDITION AND CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS; COMPETITION
We received a report from our independent registered public accounting firm with an explanatory paragraph for the year ended December 31, 2017 with respect to our ability to continue as a going concern.
In their report dated March 9, 2018, our independent registered public accounting firm expressed substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern as we have incurred losses since inception, have a negative cash flow from operations, and require additional financing to fund future operations. Our ability to continue as a going concern is subject to our ability to obtain necessary funding from outside sources, including obtaining additional funding from the sale of our securities
We will need additional capital. If additional capital is not available or is available at unattractive terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate our research and development programs, reduce our commercialization efforts or curtail our operations.
In order to develop and bring our product candidates to market, we must commit substantial resources to costly and time-consuming research, preclinical and nonclinical testing, clinical studies and marketing activities. We anticipate that our existing cash and cash equivalents will enable us to maintain our current operations for at least until the end of 2018. We anticipate using our cash and cash equivalents to fund further research and development with respect to our lead product candidate. Unless we raise additional capital, we may not have sufficient cash to last through the analysis of the topline data for the Phase 3 trial of our lead product candidate, which is currently expected to occur in the first quarter of 2019. Moreover, we will need to raise additional funding sooner if our business or operations change in a manner that consumes available resources more rapidly than we anticipate. Our requirements for additional capital will depend on many factors, including:
|●||successful commercialization of our product candidates;|
|●||the time and costs involved in obtaining regulatory approval for our product candidates;|
|●||costs associated with protecting our intellectual property rights;|
|●||development of marketing and sales capabilities;|
|●||payments received under future collaborative agreements, if any; and|
|●||market acceptance of our products.|
To the extent we raise additional capital through the sale of equity securities, the issuance of those securities could result in dilution to our stockholders. In addition, if we obtain debt financing, a substantial portion of our operating cash flow may be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on such indebtedness, thus limiting funds available for our business activities. If adequate funds are not available, we may be required to delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate our research and development programs, reduce our commercialization efforts or curtail our operations. In addition, we may be required to obtain funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or others that may require us to relinquish rights to technologies, product candidates or products that we would otherwise seek to develop or commercialize ourselves or license rights to technologies, product candidates or products on terms that are less favorable to us than might otherwise be available.
We will require substantial additional funds to support our research and development activities, and the anticipated costs of preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies, regulatory approvals and eventual commercialization. Such additional sources of financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all. If we do not succeed in raising additional funds on acceptable terms, we may be unable to commence or complete clinical studies or obtain approval of any product candidates from the FDA and other regulatory authorities. In addition, we could be forced to discontinue product development, forego sales and marketing efforts and forego attractive business opportunities. Any additional sources of financing will likely involve the issuance of our equity securities, which will have a dilutive effect on our stockholders.
There is no assurance that we will be successful in raising the additional funds needed to fund our business plan. If we are not able to raise sufficient capital in the near future, our continued operations will be in jeopardy and we may be forced to cease operations and sell or otherwise transfer all or substantially all of our remaining assets.
The sale or issuance of our common stock to Lincoln Park may cause dilution and the sale of the shares of common stock acquired by Lincoln Park, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the price of our common stock to fall.
On September 28, 2017, we entered into the Purchase Agreement with Lincoln Park, pursuant to which Lincoln Park has committed to purchase up to $15,000,000 of our common stock. Upon the execution of the Purchase Agreement, we issued 73,039 shares of common stock to Lincoln Park as a fee for its commitment to purchase shares of our common stock under the Purchase Agreement. The remaining shares of our common stock that may be issued under the Purchase Agreement may be sold by us to Lincoln Park at our discretion from time to time through March 2020. The purchase price for the shares that we may sell to Lincoln Park under the Purchase Agreement will fluctuate based on the price of our common stock. Depending on market liquidity at the time, sales of such shares may cause the trading price of our common stock to fall.
We generally have the right to control the timing and amount of any future sales of our shares to Lincoln Park. Additional sales of our common stock, if any, to Lincoln Park will depend upon market conditions and other factors to be determined by us. We may ultimately decide to sell to Lincoln Park all, some, or none of the additional shares of our common stock that may be available for us to sell pursuant to the Purchase Agreement. If and when we do sell shares to Lincoln Park, after Lincoln Park has acquired the shares, Lincoln Park may resell all, some or none of those shares at any time or from time to time in its discretion. Therefore, sales to Lincoln Park by us could result in substantial dilution to the interests of other holders of our common stock. Additionally, the sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock to Lincoln Park, or the anticipation of such sales, could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise wish to effect sales.
We face intense competition in the markets targeted by our product candidates. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources than we do, and we expect that all of our product candidates under development will face intense competition from existing or future drugs.
We expect that all of our product candidates under development, if approved, will face intense competition from existing and future drugs marketed by large companies. These competitors may successfully market products that compete with our products, successfully identify drug candidates or develop products earlier than we do, or develop products that are more effective, have fewer side effects or cost less than our products.
Additionally, if a competitor receives FDA approval before we do for a drug that is similar to one of our product candidates, FDA approval for our product candidate may be precluded or delayed due to periods of non-patent exclusivity and/or the listing with the FDA by the competitor of patents covering its newly-approved drug product. Periods of non-patent exclusivity for new versions of existing drugs such as our current drug product candidate, Tonmya, can extend up to three and one-half years.
These competitive factors could require us to conduct substantial new research and development activities to establish new product targets, which would be costly and time consuming. These activities would adversely affect our ability to commercialize products and achieve revenue and profits.
Competition and technological change may make our product candidates and technologies less attractive or obsolete.
We compete with established pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that are pursuing other forms of treatment for the same or similar indications we are pursuing and that have greater financial and other resources. Other companies may succeed in developing products earlier than us, obtaining FDA approval for products more rapidly, or developing products that are more effective than our product candidates. Research and development by others may render our technology or product candidates obsolete or noncompetitive, or result in treatments or cures superior to any therapy we develop. We face competition from companies that internally develop competing technology or acquire competing technology from universities and other research institutions. As these companies develop their technologies, they may develop competitive positions that may prevent, make futile, or limit our product commercialization efforts, which would result in a decrease in the revenue we would be able to derive from the sale of any products.
There can be no assurance that any of our product candidates will be accepted by the marketplace as readily as these or other competing treatments. Furthermore, if our competitors’ products are approved before ours, it could be more difficult for us to obtain approval from the FDA. Even if our products are successfully developed and approved for use by all governing regulatory bodies, there can be no assurance that physicians and patients will accept our product(s) as a treatment of choice.
Furthermore, the pharmaceutical research industry is diverse, complex, and rapidly changing. By its nature, the business risks associated therewith are numerous and significant. The effects of competition, intellectual property disputes, market acceptance, and FDA regulations preclude us from forecasting revenues or income with certainty or even confidence.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND REGULATORY EXCLUSIVITY
If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, our ability to pursue the development of our technologies and products would be negatively affected.
Our success will depend in part on our ability to obtain patents and maintain adequate protection of our technologies and products. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property, competitors may be able to use our technologies to produce and market drugs using our technologies and patents in direct competition with us and erode our competitive advantage. Some foreign countries lack rules and methods for defending intellectual property rights and do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the United States. Many companies have had difficulty protecting their proprietary rights in these foreign countries. We may not be able to prevent misappropriation of our proprietary rights and intellectual property rights in these and other countries.
We have received, and are currently seeking, patent protection for numerous compounds and methods of treating diseases. However, the patent process is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in protecting our products by obtaining and defending patents related to them. These risks and uncertainties include the following: patents that may be issued or licensed may be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented, or otherwise may not provide us any competitive advantage; our competitors, many of which have substantially greater resources than we and many of which have made significant investments in competing technologies, may seek, or may already have obtained, patents that will limit, interfere with, or eliminate our ability to make, use, and sell our potential products either in the United States or in international markets; there may be significant pressure on the United States government and other international governmental bodies to limit the scope of patent protection both inside and outside the United States for treatments that prove successful as a matter of public policy regarding worldwide health concerns; and countries other than the United States may have less robust patent laws than those upheld by United States courts, allowing foreign competitors the ability to exploit these laws to create, develop, and market competing products using our technologies and patents.
Moreover, any patents issued to us may not provide us with meaningful protection, or others may challenge, circumvent or narrow our patents. Third parties may also independently develop products similar to our products, duplicate our unpatented products or design around any patents or propriety technologies on products we develop. Additionally, extensive time is required for development, testing and regulatory review of a potential product. While extensions of patent term due to regulatory delays may be available, it is possible that, before any of our product candidates can be commercialized, any related patent, even with an extension, may expire or remain in force for only a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing any advantages to us of the patent.
In addition, the PTO and patent offices in other jurisdictions have often required that patent applications concerning pharmaceutical and/or biotechnology-related inventions be limited or narrowed substantially to cover only the innovations specifically exemplified in the patent application, thereby limiting the scope of protection against competitive challenges. Thus, even if we or our licensors are able to obtain patents, the patents may be substantially narrower than anticipated.
Our success depends on our patents and patent applications that may be licensed exclusively to us and other patents and patent applications to which we may obtain assignment or licenses. We may not be aware, however, of all patents, published applications or published literature that may affect our business either by blocking our ability to commercialize our product candidates, by preventing the patentability of our product candidates to us or our licensors, or by covering the same or similar technologies. These patents, patent applications, and published literature may limit the scope of our future patent claims or adversely affect our ability to market our product candidates.
In addition to patents, we rely on a combination of trade secrets, confidentiality, nondisclosure and other contractual provisions, and security measures to protect our confidential and proprietary information. These measures may not adequately protect our trade secrets or other proprietary information. If they do not adequately protect our rights, third parties could use our technology, and we could lose any competitive advantage we may have. In addition, others may independently develop similar proprietary information or techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets, which could impair any competitive advantage we may have.
Patent protection and other intellectual property protection is crucial to the success of our business and prospects, and there is a substantial risk that such protections will prove inadequate.
We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents, which could be expensive and time consuming.
The pharmaceutical industry has been characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights, and companies have employed intellectual property litigation to gain a competitive advantage. We may become subject to infringement claims or litigation arising out of present and future patents and other proceedings of our competitors. The defense and prosecution of intellectual property suits are costly and time-consuming to pursue, and their outcome is uncertain. Litigation may be necessary to determine the enforceability, scope, and validity of the proprietary rights of others. An adverse determination in litigation to which we may become a party could subject us to significant liabilities, require us to obtain licenses from third parties, or restrict or prevent us from selling our products in certain markets. Although patent and intellectual property disputes might be settled through licensing or similar arrangements, the costs associated with such arrangements may be substantial and could include our paying large fixed payments and ongoing royalties. Furthermore, the necessary licenses may not be available on satisfactory terms or at all.
Competitors may infringe our patents, and we may file infringement claims to counter infringement or unauthorized use. Third parties may assert that our patents are invalid and/or unenforceable in these proceedings. Such litigation can be expensive, particularly for a company of our size, and time-consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is not valid or is unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover its technology. An adverse determination of any litigation or defense proceedings could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly.
Third parties may also assert that our patents are invalid in patent office administrative proceedings. These proceedings include oppositions in the European Patent Office and inter partes review and post-grant review proceedings in the PTO. The success rate of these administrative challenges to patent validity in the United States is higher than it is for validity challenges in litigation.
Interference or derivation proceedings brought before the PTO may be necessary to determine priority of invention with respect to innovations disclosed in our patents or patent applications. During these proceedings, it may be determined that we do not have priority of invention for one or more aspects in our patents or patent applications and could result in the invalidation in part or whole of a patent or could put a patent application at risk of not issuing. Even if successful, an interference or derivation proceeding may result in substantial costs and distraction to our management.
Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation or interference or derivation proceedings, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If investors perceive these results to be negative, the price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
There are no unresolved communications, allegations, complaints or threats of litigation related to the possibility that our patents are invalid or unenforceable. Any litigation or claims against us, whether or not merited, may result in substantial costs, place a significant strain on our financial resources, divert the attention of management and harm our reputation. An adverse decision in litigation or administrative proceedings could result in inadequate protection for our product candidates and/or reduce the value of any license agreements we have with third parties.
If we infringe the rights of third parties we could be prevented from selling products, forced to pay damages, and defend against litigation.
If our products, methods, processes and other technologies infringe the proprietary rights of other parties, we could incur substantial costs and we may have to: obtain licenses, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all; abandon an infringing product candidate; redesign our products or processes to avoid infringement; stop using the subject matter claimed in the patents held by others; pay damages; and/or defend litigation or administrative proceedings which may be costly whether we win or lose, and which could result in a substantial diversion of our financial and management resources.
GENERAL COMPANY-RELATED RISKS
If preclinical and nonclinical testing or clinical studies for our product candidates are unsuccessful or delayed, we will be unable to meet our anticipated development and commercialization timelines.
We rely and expect to continue to rely on third parties, including contract research organizations, or CROs, and outside consultants, to conduct, supervise or monitor some or all aspects of preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies involving our product candidates. We have less control over the timing and other aspects of these preclinical and nonclinical testing activities and clinical studies than if we performed the monitoring and supervision entirely on our own. Third parties may not perform their responsibilities for our preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies on our anticipated schedule or, for clinical studies, consistent with a clinical study protocol. Delays in preclinical and nonclinical testing, and clinical studies could significantly increase our product development costs and delay product commercialization. In addition, many of the factors that may cause, or lead to, a delay in the clinical studies may also ultimately lead to denial of regulatory approval of a product candidate.
The commencement of clinical studies can be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays in:
|●||demonstrating sufficient safety and efficacy to obtain regulatory approval to commence a clinical study;|
|●||reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and study sites;|
|●||developing a stable formulation of a product candidate;|
|●||manufacturing sufficient quantities of a product candidate; and|
|●||obtaining institutional review board, or IRB, approval to conduct a clinical study at a prospective site.|
Once a clinical study has begun, it may be delayed, suspended or terminated by us or the FDA or other regulatory authorities due to a number of factors, including:
|●||ongoing discussions with the FDA or other regulatory authorities regarding the scope or design of our clinical studies;|
|●||failure to conduct clinical studies in accordance with regulatory requirements;|
|●||lower than anticipated recruitment or retention rate of patients in clinical studies;|
|●||inspection of the clinical study operations or study sites by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold;|
|●||lack of adequate funding to continue clinical studies;|
|●||negative results of clinical studies;|
|●||investigational drug product out-of-specification; or|
|●||nonclinical or clinical safety observations, including adverse events and SAEs.|
If clinical studies are unsuccessful, and we are not able to obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates under development, we will not be able to commercialize these products, and therefore may not be able to generate sufficient revenues to support our business.
We rely on third parties to conduct, supervise and monitor our clinical studies, and if those third parties perform in an unsatisfactory manner, it may harm our business.
We rely on CROs and clinical study sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical studies. While we have agreements governing their activities, we will have limited influence over their actual performance. We will control only certain aspects of our CROs’ activities. Nevertheless, we will be responsible for ensuring that our clinical studies are conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities.
We and our CROs are required to comply with the FDA’s cGCP for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical studies to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of clinical study participants are protected. The FDA enforces these cGCPs through periodic inspections of study sponsors, principal investigators and clinical study sites. If we or our CROs fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical studies may be deemed unreliable and the FDA may require us to perform additional clinical studies before approving any marketing applications. Upon inspection, the FDA may determine that our clinical studies did not comply with cGCPs. In addition, our clinical studies, including our ongoing Phase 3 HONOR study in military-related PTSD, will require a sufficiently large number of test subjects to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Tonmya. Accordingly, if our CROs fail to comply with these regulations or fail to recruit a sufficient number of participants, our clinical studies may be delayed or we may be required to repeat such clinical studies, which would delay the regulatory approval process.
Our CROs are not our employees, and we are not able to control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our clinical studies. These CROs may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical studies, or other drug development activities which could harm our competitive position.
If our CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations, fail to meet expected deadlines, or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements, or for any other reasons, our clinical studies may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize our product candidates. As a result, our financial results and the commercial prospects for such product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase, and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.
We also rely on other third parties to store and distribute drug products for our clinical studies. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our product candidates or commercialization of our products, if approved, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.
We will need to expand our operations and increase the size of our company, and we may experience difficulties in managing growth.
As we advance our product candidates through preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies, and develop new product candidates, we will need to increase our product development, scientific, regulatory and compliance and administrative headcount to manage these programs. In addition, to meet our obligations as a public company, we will need to increase our general and administrative capabilities. Our management, personnel and systems currently in place may not be adequate to support this future growth. Our need to effectively manage our operations, growth and various projects requires that we:
|●||successfully attract and recruit new employees with the expertise and experience we will require;|
|●||manage our clinical programs effectively, which we anticipate being conducted at numerous clinical sites;|
|●||develop a marketing, distribution and sales infrastructure in addition to a post-marketing surveillance program if we seek to market our products directly; and|
|●||continue to improve our operational, manufacturing, quality assurance, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.|
If we are unable to successfully manage this growth and increased complexity of operations, our business may be adversely affected.
Our executive officers and other key personnel are critical to our business, and our future success depends on our ability to retain them.
Our success depends to a significant extent upon the continued services of Dr. Seth Lederman, our President and Chief Executive Officer and Dr. Gregory M. Sullivan, our Chief Medical Officer. Dr. Lederman has overseen Tonix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary, since inception and provides leadership for our growth and operations strategy as well as being an inventor on many of our patents. Dr. Sullivan has served as our Chief Medical Officer since 2014 and directed the Phase 2 AtEase study and is directing the Phase 3 HONOR study. Loss of the services of Drs. Lederman or Sullivan would have a material adverse effect on our growth, revenues, and prospective business. The loss of any of our key personnel, or the inability to attract and retain qualified personnel, may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our research, development or business objectives and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any employment agreement we enter into will not ensure the retention of the employee who is a party to the agreement. In addition, we have only limited ability to prevent former employees from competing with us. Furthermore, our future success will also depend in part on the continued service of our key scientific and management personnel and our ability to identify, hire, and retain additional personnel. We experience intense competition for qualified personnel and may be unable to attract and retain the personnel necessary for the development of our business. Moreover, competition for personnel with the scientific and technical skills that we seek is extremely high and is likely to remain high. Because of this competition, our compensation costs may increase significantly.
If we are unable to hire additional qualified personnel, our ability to grow our business may be harmed.
Over time we will need to hire additional qualified personnel with expertise in drug development, product registration, clinical, preclinical and nonclinical research, quality compliance, government regulation, formulation and manufacturing, financial matters and sales and marketing. We compete for qualified individuals with numerous biopharmaceutical companies, universities and other research institutions. Competition for such individuals is intense, and we cannot be certain that our search for such personnel will be successful. Attracting and retaining qualified personnel will be critical to our success.
We rely on third parties to manufacture the compounds used in our studies, and we intend to rely on them for the manufacture of any approved products for commercial sale. If these third parties do not manufacture our product candidates in sufficient quantities and at an acceptable cost, clinical development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed, prevented or impaired.
We have no manufacturing facilities, and we have no experience in the clinical or commercial-scale manufacture of drugs or in designing drug manufacturing processes. We intend to rely on CMOs to manufacture some or all of our product candidates in clinical studies and our products that reach commercialization. Completion of our clinical studies and commercialization of our product candidates requires the manufacture of a sufficient supply of our product candidates. We have contracted with outside sources to manufacture our development compounds, including Tonmya. If, for any reason, we become unable to rely on our current sources for the manufacture of our product candidates, either for clinical studies or, at some future date, for commercial quantities, then we would need to identify and contract with additional or replacement third-party manufacturers to manufacture compounds for nonclinical, preclinical, clinical, and commercial purposes. Although we are in discussions with other manufacturers we have identified as potential alternative CMOs of Tonmya, we may not be successful in negotiating acceptable terms with any of them.
We believe that there are a variety of manufacturers that we may be able to retain to produce these products. However, once we retain a manufacturing source, if our manufacturers do not perform in a satisfactory manner, we may not be able to develop or commercialize potential products as planned. Certain specialized manufacturers are expected to provide us with modified and unmodified pharmaceutical compounds, including finished products, for use in our preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies. Some of these materials are available from only one supplier or vendor. Any interruption in or termination of service by such sole source suppliers could result in a delay or interruption in manufacturing until we locate an alternative source of supply. Any delay or interruption in manufacturing operations (or failure to locate a suitable replacement for such suppliers) could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, or results of operations. We do not have any short-term or long-term manufacturing agreements with many of these manufacturers. If we fail to contract for manufacturing on acceptable terms or if third-party manufacturers do not perform as we expect, our development programs could be materially adversely affected. This may result in delays in filing for and receiving FDA approval for one or more of our products. Any such delays could cause our prospects to suffer significantly.
Failure by our third-party manufacturers to comply with the regulatory guidelines set forth by the FDA with respect to our product candidates could delay or prevent the completion of clinical studies, the approval of any product candidates or the commercialization of our products.
Such third-party manufacturers must be inspected by FDA for cGMP compliance before they can produce commercial product. We may be in competition with other companies for access to these manufacturers’ facilities and may be subject to delays in manufacture if the manufacturers give other clients higher priority than they give to us. If we are unable to secure and maintain third-party manufacturing capacity, the development and sales of our products and our financial performance may be materially affected.
Manufacturers are obligated to operate in accordance with FDA-mandated requirements. A failure of any of our third-party manufacturers to establish and follow cGMP requirements and to document their adherence to such practices may lead to significant delays in the availability of material for clinical studies, may delay or prevent filing or approval of marketing applications for our products, and may cause delays or interruptions in the availability of our products for commercial distribution following FDA approval. This could result in higher costs to us or deprive us of potential product revenues.
Complying with cGMP and non-U.S. regulatory requirements will require that we expend time, money, and effort in production, recordkeeping, and quality control to assure that the product meets applicable specifications and other requirements. We, or our contracted manufacturing facility, must also pass a pre-approval inspection prior to FDA approval. Failure to pass a pre-approval inspection may significantly delay FDA approval of our products. If we fail to comply with these requirements, we would be subject to possible regulatory action and may be limited in the jurisdictions in which we are permitted to sell our products. As a result, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially harmed.
Drug manufacturers are subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA, the Drug Enforcement Administration, or DEA, and corresponding state and foreign agencies to ensure strict compliance with cGMP requirements and other requirements under Federal drug laws, other government regulations and corresponding foreign standards. If we or our third-party manufacturers fail to comply with applicable regulations, sanctions could be imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, failure by the government to grant marketing approval of drugs, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, seizures or recalls of product, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions.
Corporate and academic collaborators may take actions to delay, prevent, or undermine the success of our products.
Our operating and financial strategy for the development, clinical testing, manufacture, and commercialization of drug candidates is heavily dependent on our entering into collaborations with corporations, academic institutions, licensors, licensees, and other parties. Our current strategy assumes that we will successfully establish these collaborations, or similar relationships; however, there can be no assurance that we will be successful establishing such collaborations. Some of our existing collaborations are, and future collaborations may be, terminable at the sole discretion of the collaborator. Replacement collaborators might not be available on attractive terms, or at all. The activities of any collaborator will not be within our control and may not be within our power to influence. There can be no assurance that any collaborator will perform its obligations to our satisfaction or at all, that we will derive any revenue or profits from such collaborations, or that any collaborator will not compete with us. If any collaboration is not pursued, we may require substantially greater capital to undertake development and marketing of our proposed products and may not be able to develop and market such products effectively, if at all. In addition, a lack of development and marketing collaborations may lead to significant delays in introducing proposed products into certain markets and/or reduced sales of proposed products in such markets.
Data provided by collaborators and others upon which we rely that has not been independently verified could turn out to be false, misleading, or incomplete.
We rely on third-party vendors, scientists, and collaborators to provide us with significant data and other information related to our projects, clinical studies, and our business. If such third parties provide inaccurate, misleading, or incomplete data, our business, prospects, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Our product candidates may face competition sooner than expected.
We intend to seek data exclusivity or market exclusivity for our product candidates provided under the FDCA and similar laws in other countries. We believe that TNX-801 could qualify for 12 years of data exclusivity under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or BPCIA, which was enacted as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product or BLA cannot be submitted to the FDA until four years, or if approved by the FDA, until 12 years, after the original brand product identified as the reference product is approved under a BLA. The BPCIA provides an abbreviated pathway for the approval of biosimilar and interchangeable biological products. The new abbreviated regulatory pathway establishes legal authority for the FDA to review and approve biosimilar biologics, including the possible designation of a biosimilar as “interchangeable” based on its similarity to an existing brand product. The new law is complex and is only beginning to be interpreted and implemented by the FDA. While it is uncertain when any such processes may be fully adopted by the FDA, any such processes could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for any of our product candidates that are biologics. There is also a risk that President Trump’s administration could repeal or amend the BPCIA to shorten this exclusivity period, potentially creating the opportunity for biosimilar competition sooner than anticipated after the expiration of our patent protection. Although there is no current discussion of repeal or modification of the BPCIA, the future remains uncertain. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar, once approved, will be substituted for any reference product in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biological products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing.
Our product candidates that are not, or are not considered, biologics that would qualify for exclusivity under the BPCIA may be eligible for market exclusivity as drugs under the FDCA. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent marketing exclusivity within the U.S. to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for an NCE. A drug is an NCE if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an abbreviated new drug application, or ANDA, or a 505(b)(2) NDA, submitted by another company for another version of such drug where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, an application may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement. The FDCA also provides three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example, for new indications, dosages, or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for drugs containing the original active agent.
Even if, as we expect, our product candidates are considered to be reference products eligible for 12 years of exclusivity under the BPCIA or five years of exclusivity under the FDCA, another company could market competing products if the FDA approves a full BLA or full NDA for such product containing the sponsor’s own preclinical data and data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to demonstrate the safety, purity and potency of the products. Moreover, an amendment or repeal of the BPCIA could result in a shorter exclusivity period for our product candidates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
If we fail to establish marketing, sales and distribution capabilities, or fail to enter into arrangements with third parties, we will not be able to create a market for our product candidates.
Our strategy with our product candidates is to control, directly or through contracted third parties, all or most aspects of the product development process, including marketing, sales and distribution. Currently, we do not have any sales, marketing or distribution capabilities. In order to generate sales of any product candidates that receive regulatory approval, we must either acquire or develop an internal marketing and sales force with technical expertise and with supporting distribution capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services for us. The acquisition or development of a sales and distribution infrastructure would require substantial resources, which may divert the attention of our management and key personnel and defer our product development efforts.
To the extent that we enter into marketing and sales arrangements with other companies, our revenues will depend on the efforts of others. These efforts may not be successful. If we fail to develop sales, marketing and distribution channels, or enter into arrangements with third parties, we will experience delays in product sales and incur increased costs.
Sales of pharmaceutical products largely depend on the reimbursement of patients’ medical expenses by government health care programs and private health insurers. Without the financial support of the government or third-party payors, the market for our products will be limited. These third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the cost effectiveness of medical products and services. Recent proposals to change the health care system in the United States have included measures that would limit or eliminate payments for medical products and services or subject the pricing of medical treatment products to government control. Significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of newly approved health care products. Third-party payors may not reimburse sales of our products or enable our collaborators to sell them at profitable prices.
Our business strategy might involve out-licensing product candidates to or collaborating with larger firms with experience in marketing and selling pharmaceutical products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully establish marketing, sales, or distribution relationships; that such relationships, if established, will be successful; or that we will be successful in gaining market acceptance for our products. To the extent that we enter into any marketing, sales, or distribution arrangements with third parties, our product revenues will be lower than if we marketed and sold our products directly, and any revenues we receive will depend upon the efforts of such third-parties. If we are unable to establish such third-party sales and marketing relationships, or choose not to do so, we will have to establish and rely on our own in-house capabilities.
We, as a company, have no experience in marketing or selling pharmaceutical products and currently have no sales, marketing, or distribution infrastructure. To market any of our products directly, we would need to develop a marketing, sales, and distribution force that both has technical expertise and the ability to support a distribution capability. The establishment of a marketing, sales, and distribution capability would significantly increase our costs, possibly requiring substantial additional capital. In addition, there is intense competition for proficient sales and marketing personnel, and we may not be able to attract individuals who have the qualifications necessary to market, sell, and distribute our products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to establish internal marketing, sales, or distribution capabilities. If we are unable to, or choose not to establish these capabilities, or if the capabilities we establish are not sufficient to meet our needs, we will be required to establish collaborative marketing, sales, or distribution relationships with third parties.
Our relationships with customers, physicians, and third-party payors will be subject, directly or indirectly, to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws, health information privacy and security laws, and other healthcare laws and regulations. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.
Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare professionals, principal investigators, consultants, customers and third-party payors may subject us to various federal and state fraud and abuse laws and other health care laws, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal civil and criminal false claims laws and the law commonly referred to as the Physician Payments Sunshine Act and regulations. These laws will impact, among other things, our clinical research, proposed sales, marketing and educational programs. In addition, we may be subject to patient privacy laws by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct or may conduct our business. The laws that will affect our operations include, but are not limited to:
|●||the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, in return for the purchase, recommendation, leasing or furnishing of an item or service reimbursable under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;|
|●||federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including, without limitation, the False Claims Act, and civil monetary penalty laws which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment or approval from Medicare, Medicaid or other government payors that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;|
|●||the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created new federal criminal statutes that prohibit a person from knowingly and willfully executing a scheme or making false or fraudulent statements to defraud any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private);|
|●||HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and its implementing regulations, and as amended again by the final HIPAA omnibus rule, Modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Enforcement, and Breach Notification Rules Under HITECH and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act; Other Modifications to HIPAA, published in January 2013, which imposes certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information without appropriate authorization by entities subject to the rule, such as health plans, health care clearinghouses and health care providers, and their respective business associates;|
|●||federal transparency laws, including the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which is part of PPACA, that require certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to: (i) payments or other “transfers of value’’ made to physicians and teaching hospitals; and (ii) ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;|
|●||state and foreign law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, state laws that require manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures, and state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or to adopt compliance programs as prescribed by state laws and regulations, or that otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers; and|
|●||state and foreign laws that govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.|
Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws.
It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion of drugs from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.
The risk of our being found in violation of these laws is increased by the fact that many of them have not been fully interpreted by the regulatory authorities or the courts, and their provisions are open to a variety of interpretations. Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. The shifting compliance environment and the need to build and maintain robust and expandable systems to comply with multiple jurisdictions with different compliance and/or reporting requirements increases the possibility that a healthcare company may run afoul of one or more of the requirements.
Coverage and adequate reimbursement may not be available for our current or any future drug candidates, which could make it difficult for us to sell profitably, if approved.
Market acceptance and sales of any drug candidates that we commercialize, if approved, will depend in part on the extent to which reimbursement for these drugs and related treatments will be available from third-party payors, including government health administration authorities, managed care organizations and other private health insurers. Third-party payors decide which therapies they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own coverage and reimbursement policies. However, decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided for any drug candidates that we develop will be made on a payor-by-payor basis. One payor’s determination to provide coverage for a drug does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage, and adequate reimbursement, for the drug. Additionally, a third-party payor’s decision to provide coverage for a therapy does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Each payor determines whether or not it will provide coverage for a therapy, what amount it will pay the manufacturer for the therapy, and on what tier of its formulary it will be placed. The position on a payor’s list of covered drugs, or formulary, generally determines the co-payment that a patient will need to make to obtain the therapy and can strongly influence the adoption of such therapy by patients and physicians. Patients who are prescribed treatments for their conditions and providers prescribing such services generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the associated healthcare costs. Patients are unlikely to use our drugs unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of our drugs.
A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for any drug that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be. Inadequate coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any drug for which we obtain marketing approval. If coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available, or are available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our current and any future drug candidates that we develop.
Healthcare legislative reform measures may have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.
In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and continue to be, several legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of drug candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities, and affect our ability to profitably sell any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.
Among policy makers and payors in the United States and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and/or expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives. In March 2010, the PPACA was passed, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both the government and private insurers, and significantly impacts the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The PPACA, among other things: (i) addresses a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected; (ii) increases the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and extends the rebate program to individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations; (iii) establishes annual fees and taxes on manufacturers of certain branded prescription drugs; (iv) expands the availability of lower pricing under the 340B drug pricing program by adding new entities to the program; and (v) establishes a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 50% point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D. Some of the provisions of the PPACA have yet to be fully implemented, while certain provisions have been subject to judicial and Congressional challenges. In January 2017, Congress voted to adopt a budget resolution for fiscal year 2017, or the Budget Resolution, that authorizes the implementation of legislation that would repeal portions of the PPACA. The Budget Resolution is not a law, however, it is widely viewed as the first step toward the passage of legislation that would repeal certain aspects of the PPACA. Further, on January 20, 2017, President Trump signed an Executive Order directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the PPACA to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the PPACA that would impose a fiscal or regulatory burden on states, individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices. The PPACA remains subject to legislative efforts to repeal, modify or delay the implementation of the law. Recent efforts to repeal, modify or delay implementation of the ACA have resulted in some level of success. If the PPACA is repealed or further modified, or if implementation of certain aspects of the PPACA are delayed, such repeal, modification or delay may materially adversely impact our business, strategies, prospects, operating results or financial condition. We are unable to predict the full impact of any repeal, modification or delay in the implementation of the PPACA on us at this time. Due to the substantial regulatory changes that will need to be implemented by CMS and others, and the numerous processes required to implement these reforms, we cannot predict which healthcare initiatives will be implemented at the federal or state level, the timing of any such reforms, or the effect such reforms or any other future legislation or regulation will have on our business.
Additional changes that may affect our business include the expansion of new programs such as Medicare payment for performance initiatives for physicians under the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, or MACRA, which will be fully implemented in 2019. At this time, it is unclear how the introduction of the Medicare quality payment program will impact overall physician reimbursement. Also, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which have resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed bills designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products.
We expect that these and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved drug. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our drugs.
We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for our drug candidates or additional pricing pressures.
If we obtain approval to commercialize any approved products outside of the United States, a variety of risks associated with international operations could materially adversely affect our business.
If Tonmya or any of our other product candidates are approved for commercialization outside of the United States, we intend to enter into agreements with third parties to market them on a worldwide basis or in more limited geographical regions. We expect that we will be subject to additional risks related to entering into international business relationships, including:
|●||different regulatory requirements for drug approvals;|
|●||reduced protection for intellectual property rights, including trade secret and patent rights;|
|●||unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers and regulatory requirements;|
|●||economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets;|
|●||compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;|
|●||foreign taxes, including withholding of payroll taxes;|
|●||foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenues, and other obligations incident to doing business in another country;|
|●||workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;|
|●||production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad;|
|●||business interruptions resulting from geopolitical actions, including war and terrorism, or natural disasters including earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and fires; and|
|●||difficulty in importing and exporting clinical study materials and study samples.|
We face the risk of product liability claims and may not be able to obtain insurance.
Our business exposes us to the risk of product liability claims that are inherent in the development of drugs. If the use of one or more of our or our collaborators’ drugs harms people, we may be subject to costly and damaging product liability claims brought against us by clinical study participants, consumers, health care providers, pharmaceutical companies or others selling our products. Our inability to obtain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of pharmaceutical products we develop, alone or with collaborators. While we currently carry clinical study insurance and product liability insurance, we cannot predict all of the possible harms or side effects that may result and, therefore, the amount of insurance coverage we hold now or in the future may not be adequate to cover all liabilities we might incur. We intend to expand our insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products if we obtain marketing approval for our drug candidates in development, but we may be unable to obtain commercially reasonable product liability insurance for any products approved for marketing. If we are unable to obtain insurance at an acceptable cost or otherwise protect against potential product liability claims, we will be exposed to significant liabilities, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial position. If we are sued for any injury allegedly caused by our or our collaborators’ products, our liability could exceed our total assets and our ability to pay the liability. A product liability claim or series of claims brought against us would decrease our cash and could cause our stock price to fall.
We use hazardous chemicals in our business. Potential claims relating to improper handling, storage or disposal of these chemicals could affect us and be time consuming and costly.
Our research and development processes and/or those of our third party contractors may involve the controlled use of hazardous materials and chemicals. These hazardous chemicals are reagents and solvents typically found in a chemistry laboratory. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. Federal, state and local laws and regulations govern the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of hazardous materials. While we attempt to comply with all environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to the outsourcing of the disposal of all hazardous chemicals and waste products, we cannot eliminate the risk of contamination from or discharge of hazardous materials and any resultant injury. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for any resulting damages and any liability could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Compliance with environmental laws and regulations may be expensive. Current or future environmental regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. We might have to pay civil damages in the event of an improper or unauthorized release of, or exposure of individuals to, hazardous materials. We are not insured against these environmental risks.
If we enter into collaborations with third parties, they might also work with hazardous materials in connection with our collaborations. We may agree to indemnify our collaborators in some circumstances against damages and other liabilities arising out of development activities or products produced in connection with these collaborations.
In addition, the federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of hazardous or radioactive materials and waste products may require us to incur substantial compliance costs that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our insurance policies are expensive and protect us only from some business risks, which will leave us exposed to significant uninsured liabilities.
We carry insurance for most categories of risk that our business may encounter, however, we may not have adequate levels of coverage. We currently maintain general liability, clinical study, property, workers’ compensation, products liability and directors’ and officers’ insurance, along with an umbrella policy, which collectively costs approximately $500,000 per annum. We cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to maintain existing insurance at current or adequate levels of coverage. Any significant uninsured liability may require us to pay substantial amounts, which would adversely affect our cash position and results of operations.
If we retain collaborative partners and our partners do not satisfy their obligations, we will be unable to develop our partnered product candidates.
In the event we enter into any collaborative agreements, we may not have day-to-day control over the activities of our collaborative partners with respect to any of these product candidates. Any collaborative partner may not fulfill its obligations under these agreements. If a collaborative partner fails to fulfill its obligations under an agreement with us, we may be unable to assume the development of the products covered by that agreement or enter into alternative arrangements with a third party. In addition, we may encounter delays in the commercialization of the product candidate that is the subject of the agreement. Accordingly, our ability to receive any revenue from the product candidates covered by these agreements will be dependent on the efforts of our collaborative partner. We could also become involved in disputes with a collaborative partner, which could lead to delays in or termination of our development and commercialization programs and time-consuming and expensive litigation or arbitration. In addition, any such dispute could diminish our collaborators’ commitment to us and reduce the resources they devote to developing and commercializing our products. Conflicts or disputes with our collaborators, and competition from them, could harm our relationships with our other collaborators, restrict our ability to enter future collaboration agreements and delay the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates. If any collaborative partner terminates or breaches its agreement, or otherwise fails to complete its obligations in a timely manner, our chances of successfully developing or commercializing these product candidates would be materially and adversely affected. We may not be able to enter into collaborative agreements with partners on terms favorable to us, or at all. Our inability to enter into collaborative arrangements with collaborative partners, or our failure to maintain such arrangements, would limit the number of product candidates that we could develop and ultimately, decrease our sources of any future revenues.
We may be unsuccessful in obtaining a priority review voucher for material threat medical countermeasures.
In 2016, the 21st Century Cures Act, or the Act, was signed into law to support ongoing biomedical innovation. One part of the Act, Section 3086, is aimed at “Encouraging Treatments for Agents that Present a National Security Threat.” The Act created a new priority review voucher program for “material threat medical countermeasures.” The Act defines such countermeasures as drugs or vaccines intended to treat biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear agents that present a national security threat or to treat harm from a condition that may be caused by administering a drug or biological product against such an agent. The Department of Homeland Security has identified 13 such threats, including anthrax, smallpox, Ebola/Marburg, tularemia, and botulism. A priority review voucher can be applied to any other product; it shortens the FDA review timeline for a new application from 10-12 months to 6 months. The recipient of a priority review voucher may transfer it.
We intend to seek a priority review voucher for TNX-801 as a material threat medical countermeasure. However, the structure of voucher programs limits the number of medical countermeasures eligible for a priority review voucher. Further, the medical countermeasure must qualify for priority review in order to be eligible and may not include any commercially approved indication. Moreover, the Priority Review Voucher program provision of the 21st Century Cures Act is set to expire in 2023. If TNX-801 does not receive FDA licensure by 2023, we may not be able to capitalize on the incentives contained in the 21st Century Cures Act unless the provision allowing for the Priority Review Voucher Program is extended until such time as TNX-801 is licensed. As such, the market for the TNX-801 will be limited if we are successful in obtaining a priority review voucher, assuming that the Priority Review Voucher Program is in effect at the time TNX-801 is available for licensing.
There may not be market interest in TNX-801.
The government is the only market for most medical countermeasures. This is because unlike other drugs and vaccines, these products are not sold to doctors, hospitals, or pharmacies. The BioShield Special Reserve Fund, or SRF, has been the sole medical countermeasures market for the last decade; a 10 year advance appropriation of $5.6 billion was available to procure successful candidate medical countermeasures. The SRF expired in 2013 and all funds were used to add 12 new medical countermeasures to the national stockpile. Congress reauthorized the SRF but adequate funding has not yet followed; the SRF is now appropriated annually and has not kept pace with the need for purchasing products ready for stockpiling. Further, Emergent BioSolutions markets an FDA approved smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000® and potentially similar products are being developed by other companies, such as Bavarian Nordic, which is developing Imvamune® or Modified Virus Ankara, or MVA, which may compete with TNX-801. As such, even if TNX-801 were to receive FDA licensure, the commercial success of TNX-801 remains uncertain.
If technology developed for the purposes of developing new medicines or vaccines can be applied to the creation or development of biological weapons, then our technology may be considered “dual use” technology and be subject to limitations on public disclosure or export.
Together with the University of Alberta, we are consulting with government authorities before publishing work that describes the synthesis of poxviruses, including TNX-801. Our research collaboration is dedicated not only to creating tools that better protect public health but also to safeguarding any information with broad, dual-use potential that could be inappropriately applied. “Dual use research” is research conducted for legitimate purposes that generates knowledge, information, technologies, and/or products that can be reasonably anticipated to provide knowledge, information, products, or technologies that could be directly misapplied to pose a significant threat to public health, agricultural crops, or national security. Because variola, the agent that causes smallpox, is a pox virus, the technology we created could be considered dual use and could be subject to export control, for example under the Wassenaar Arrangement. Further, if federal authorities determine that our research is subject to institutional oversight, we will need to implement a risk-management plan developed in collaboration with the institutional review entity. Failure to comply with the plan may result in suspension, limitation, or termination of federal funding or loss of future federal funding opportunities for any of our or the University of Alberta’s research.
We face risks in connection with existing and future collaborations with respect to the development, manufacture, and commercialization of our product candidates.
We face a number of risks in connection with our current collaborations, including the University of Alberta. Our collaboration agreements are subject to termination under various circumstances. Our collaborators may change the focus of their development and commercialization efforts or may have insufficient resources to effectively assist in the development of our products. Any future collaboration agreements may have the effect of limiting the areas of research and development that we may pursue, either alone or in collaboration with third parties. Further, disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation, or the preferred course of development, might cause delays, might result in litigation or arbitration, or might result in termination of the research, development or commercialization of our products. Any such disagreements would divert management attention and resources and be time-consuming and costly.
We face risks in connection with the production and storage of the TNX-801 vaccine.
The TNX-801 vaccine candidate is a live form of HPXV. We have initiated vaccine-manufacturing activities to support further nonclinical testing of TNX-801. While it is potentially safer and possibly better tolerated than existing smallpox-preventing vaccines, the production and storage of the synthesized HPXV virus stock may carry risk of infection and harm to individuals. HPXV, an equine disease caused by a virus and characterized by eruptions in the mouth and on the skin, is believed to be eradicated. No true HPXV outbreaks have been reported since 1976, at which time the United States Department of Agriculture obtained the viral sample used for the sequence published in 2006 that allowed the synthesis of TNX-801.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR STOCK
Sales of additional shares of our common stock could cause the price of our common stock to decline.
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the availability of such shares for sale, by us or others, including the issuance of common stock upon exercise of outstanding options and warrants, could adversely affect the price of our common stock. We and our directors and officers may sell shares into the market, which could adversely affect the market price of shares of our common stock.
The market price for our common stock may be volatile, and your investment in our common stock could decline in value.
The stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. The market prices of the securities of biotechnology and specialty pharmaceutical companies, particularly companies like ours without product revenues and earnings, have been highly volatile and may continue to be highly volatile in the future. This volatility has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. The following factors, in addition to other risk factors described in this section, may have a significant impact on the market price of our common stock:
|●||announcements of technological innovations or new products by us or our competitors;|
|●||announcement of FDA approval, disapproval or delay of approval of our product candidates or other product-related actions;|
|●||developments involving our discovery efforts and clinical studies;|
|●||developments or disputes concerning patents or proprietary rights, including announcements of infringement, interference or other litigation against us or our potential licensees;|
|●||developments involving our efforts to commercialize our products, including developments impacting the timing of commercialization;|
|●||announcements concerning our competitors, or the biotechnology, pharmaceutical or drug delivery industry in general;|
|●||public concerns as to the safety or efficacy of our product candidates or our competitors’ products;|
|●||changes in government regulation of the pharmaceutical or medical industry;|
|●||changes in the reimbursement policies of third party insurance companies or government agencies;|
|●||actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;|
|●||changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts;|
|●||developments involving corporate collaborators, if any;|
|●||changes in accounting principles; and|
|●||the loss of any of our key scientific or management personnel.|
In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against companies that experience volatility in the market price of their securities. Whether or not meritorious, litigation brought against us could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
We do not anticipate paying dividends on our common stock and, accordingly, stockholders must rely on stock appreciation for any return on their investment.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not expect to do so in the foreseeable future. The declaration of dividends is subject to applicable Nevada law and the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on various factors, including our operating results, financial condition, future prospects and any other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. You should not rely on an investment in our company if you require dividend income from your investment in our company. The success of your investment will likely depend entirely upon any future appreciation of the market price of our common stock, which is uncertain and unpredictable. There is no guarantee that our common stock will appreciate in value.
We expect that our quarterly results of operations will fluctuate, and this fluctuation could cause our stock price to decline.
Our quarterly operating results are likely to fluctuate in the future. These fluctuations could cause our stock price to decline. The nature of our business involves variable factors, such as the timing of the research, development and regulatory pathways of our product candidates, which could cause our operating results to fluctuate.
Due to the possibility of fluctuations in our revenues and expenses, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our operating results are not a good indication of our future performance.
The rights of the holders of common stock may be impaired by the potential issuance of preferred stock.
Our articles of incorporation give our board of directors the right to create new series of preferred stock. As a result, the board of directors may, without stockholder approval, issue preferred stock with voting, dividend, conversion, liquidation or other rights which could adversely affect the voting power and equity interest of the holders of common stock. Preferred stock, which could be issued with the right to more than one vote per share, could be utilized as a method of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change of control. The possible impact on takeover attempts could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Although we have no present intention to issue any shares of preferred stock or to create a series of preferred stock, we may issue such shares in the future.
If we fail to comply with the rules under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 related to accounting controls and procedures, or if we discover material weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult.
If we fail to comply with the rules under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 related to disclosure controls and procedures, or, if we discover material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If material weaknesses or significant deficiencies are discovered or if we otherwise fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Moreover, effective internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to helping prevent financial fraud. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our business and operating results could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and the trading price of our common stock could drop significantly.
Because certain of our stockholders control a significant number of shares of our common stock, they may have effective control over actions requiring stockholder approval.
As of April 30, 2018, our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders (those beneficially owning in excess of 5%), and their respective affiliates, beneficially own approximately 18% of our outstanding shares of common stock. As a result, these stockholders, acting together, could have the ability to influence or control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, these stockholders, acting together, could have the ability to influence or control the management and affairs of our company. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership might harm the market price of our common stock by:
|●||delaying, deferring or preventing a change in corporate control;|
|●||impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us; or|
|●||discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.|
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they change their recommendations regarding our stock adversely, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. Our research coverage by industry and financial analysts is currently limited. Even if our analyst coverage increases, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Other companies may have difficulty acquiring us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders, due to provisions under our corporate charter and bylaws, as well as Nevada law.
Provisions in our articles of incorporation, our bylaws, and under Nevada law could make it more difficult for other companies to acquire us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders. Our articles of incorporation and bylaws contain the following provisions, among others, which may inhibit an acquisition of our company by a third party:
|●||advance notification procedures for matters to be brought before stockholder meetings,|
|●||limitations on who may call stockholder meetings,|
|●||a two-thirds stockholder vote threshold for the removal of directors, and|
|●||the ability of our board of directors to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock without a stockholder vote|
We also may be subject to provisions of Nevada law that may have the effect of limiting or prohibiting certain business combinations with stockholders beneficially owning more than 10% of our common stock.
DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements include those that express plans, anticipation, intent, contingency, goals, targets or future development and/or otherwise are not statements of historical fact. These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and projections about future events and they are subject to risks and uncertainties known and unknown that could cause actual results and developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such statements.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology, such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “estimates,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “may,” “should”, “could” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus.
You should read this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents that we reference herein and therein and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus or such prospectus supplement only. Because the risk factors referred to above, as well as the risk factors referred to on page 2 of this prospectus and incorporated herein by reference, could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of the information presented in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, and particularly our forward-looking statements, by these cautionary statements.
USE OF PROCEEDS
Except as otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include working capital, capital expenditures, research and development expenditures, regulatory affairs expenditures, clinical trial expenditures, acquisitions of new technologies and investments, the financing of possible acquisitions or business expansions, and the repayment, refinancing, redemption or repurchase of future indebtedness or capital stock.
The intended application of proceeds from the sale of any particular offering of securities using this prospectus will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement relating to such offering. The precise amount and timing of the application of these proceeds will depend on our funding requirements and the availability and costs of other funds.
THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER
The descriptions of the securities contained in this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements, summarize all the material terms and provisions of the various types of securities that we may offer. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any securities the particular terms of the securities offered by that prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, the terms of the securities may differ from the terms we have summarized below. We will also include in the prospectus supplement information, where applicable, about material United States federal income tax considerations relating to the securities, and the securities exchange, if any, on which the securities will be listed.
We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings:
|●||shares of our common stock;|
|●||shares of our preferred stock;|
|●||warrants to purchase any of the securities listed above; and/or|
|●||units consisting of any of the securities listed above.|
The terms of any securities we offer will be determined at the time of sale. We may issue securities that are exchangeable for or convertible into common stock or any of the other securities that may be sold under this prospectus. When particular securities are offered, a supplement to this prospectus will be filed with the SEC, which will describe the terms of the offering and sale of the offered securities.
DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
The following is a summary of all material characteristics of our common stock as set forth in our articles of incorporation and bylaws. The summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our articles of incorporation and bylaws, each as amended, and to the provisions of Chapter 78 of the Nevada Revised Statutes, as amended (“NRS”).
We are authorized to issue up to 150,000,000 shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of April 30, 2018, there were 8,340,790 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding. The outstanding shares of our common stock are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a stockholder vote. Holders of our common stock do not have cumulative voting rights. Therefore, holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock voting for the election of directors can elect all of the directors. Holders of our common stock representing a majority of the voting power of our capital stock issued, outstanding and entitled to vote, represented in person or by proxy, are necessary to constitute a quorum at any meeting of stockholders. A vote by the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares is required to effectuate certain fundamental corporate changes such as dissolution, merger or an amendment to our articles of incorporation. However, a two-thirds vote is required for stockholders to amend our bylaws.
Subject to the rights of holders of shares of our preferred stock, if any, the holders of our common stock are entitled to share in all dividends that our Board of Directors, in its discretion, declares on our common stock from legally available funds. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles its holder to participate pro rata in all assets that remain after payment of liabilities and after providing for each class of stock, if any, having preference over our common stock. Our common stock has no pre-emptive, subscription or conversion rights and there are no redemption provisions applicable to our common stock.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The Transfer Agent and Registrar for our common stock is vStock Transfer, LLC, 18 Lafayette Place, Woodmere, NY 11598.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
The following is a summary of all material characteristics of our preferred stock as set forth in our articles of incorporation and bylaws. The summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our articles of incorporation and bylaws, each as amended, and to the provisions of Chapter 78 of the Nevada Revised Statutes, as amended (“NRS”).
We are authorized to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, none of which are currently outstanding. The shares of preferred stock may be issued in series, and shall have such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers, and such designations, preferences and relative participating, optional or other special rights, and qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, as shall be stated and expressed in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuance of such stock adopted from time to time by the board of directors. The board of directors is expressly vested with the authority to determine and fix in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuances of preferred stock the voting powers, designations, preferences and rights, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of each such series to the full extent now or hereafter permitted by the laws of the State of Nevada.
Terms of the Preferred Stock That We May Offer and Sell to You
We summarize below some of the provisions that will apply to the preferred stock that we may offer to you unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise. This summary may not contain all information that is important to you. You should read the prospectus supplement, which will contain additional information and which may update or change some of the information below. Prior to the issuance of a new series of preferred stock, we will further amend our articles of incorporation, as amended, designating the stock of that series and the terms of that series. We will file a copy of the certificate of designation that contains the terms of each new series of preferred stock with the Nevada Secretary of State and the SEC each time we issue a new series of preferred stock. Each certificate of designation will establish the number of shares included in a designated series and fix the designation, powers, privileges, preferences and rights of the shares of each series as well as any applicable qualifications, limitations or restrictions. You should refer to the applicable certificate of designation as well as our articles of incorporation, as amended, before deciding to buy shares of our preferred stock as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the number of shares, dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, redemption rights, liquidation preferences, sinking funds, and any other rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions applicable to each such series of preferred stock.
The issuance of any preferred stock could adversely affect the rights of the holders of common stock and, therefore, reduce the value of the common stock. The ability of our board of directors to issue preferred stock could discourage, delay or prevent a takeover or other corporate action.
The terms of any particular series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that particular series of preferred stock, including, where applicable:
|●||the designation, stated value and liquidation preference of such preferred stock;|
|●||the number of shares within the series;|
|●||the offering price;|
|●||the dividend rate or rates (or method of calculation), the date or dates from which dividends shall accrue, and whether such dividends shall be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends shall commence to cumulate;|
|●||any redemption or sinking fund provisions;|
|●||the amount that shares of such series shall be entitled to receive in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up;|
|●||the terms and conditions, if any, on which shares of such series shall be convertible or exchangeable for shares of our stock of any other class or classes, or other series of the same class;|
|●||the voting rights, if any, of shares of such series; the status as to reissuance or sale of shares of such series redeemed, purchased or otherwise reacquired, or surrendered to us on conversion or exchange;|
|●||the conditions and restrictions, if any, on the payment of dividends or on the making of other distributions on, or the purchase, redemption or other acquisition by us or any subsidiary, of the common stock or of any other class of our shares ranking junior to the shares of such series as to dividends or upon liquidation;|
|●||the conditions and restrictions, if any, on the creation of indebtedness by us or by any subsidiary, or on the issuance of any additional stock ranking on a parity with or prior to the shares of such series as to dividends or upon liquidation; and|
|●||any additional dividend, liquidation, redemption, sinking or retirement fund and other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions of such preferred stock.|
The description of the terms of a particular series of preferred stock in the applicable prospectus supplement will not be complete. You should refer to the applicable amendment to our articles of incorporation, as amended, for complete information regarding a series of preferred stock.
The preferred stock will, when issued against payment of the consideration payable therefor, be fully paid and nonassessable.
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus and the related warrant agreements and warrant certificates. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the prospectus supplement, the terms of any warrants offered under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. If there are differences between that prospectus supplement and this prospectus, the prospectus supplement will control. Thus, the statements we make in this section may not apply to a particular series of warrants. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement which includes this prospectus.
We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock and/or preferred stock in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock and/or preferred stock, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities.
We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we may issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. Each warrant agent may be a bank that we select which has its principal office in the United States and a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000. We may also choose to act as our own warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of any such warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:
|●||the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;|
|●||the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;|
|●||if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;|
|●||if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;|
|●||in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;|
|●||the warrant agreement under which the warrants will be issued;|
|●||the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;|
|●||anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;|
|●||the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;|
|●||any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;|
|●||the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire or, if the warrants are not continuously exercisable during that period, the specific date or dates on which the warrants will be exercisable;|
|●||the manner in which the warrant agreement and warrants may be modified;|
|●||the identities of the warrant agent and any calculation or other agent for the warrants;|
|●||federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;|
|●||the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;|
|●||any securities exchange or quotation system on which the warrants or any securities deliverable upon exercise of the warrants may be listed; and|
|●||any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.|
Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
Holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate, and in the applicable prospectus supplement, the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent.
Until the warrant is properly exercised, no holder of any warrant will be entitled to any rights of a holder of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrant.
Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.
Enforceability of Rights By Holders of Warrants
Any warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants in accordance with their terms.
Calculations relating to warrants may be made by a calculation agent, an institution that we appoint as our agent for this purpose. The prospectus supplement for a particular warrant will name the institution that we have appointed to act as the calculation agent for that warrant as of the original issue date for that warrant. We may appoint a different institution to serve as calculation agent from time to time after the original issue date without the consent or notification of the holders.
The calculation agent’s determination of any amount of money payable or securities deliverable with respect to a warrant will be final and binding in the absence of manifest error.
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe:
|●||the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;|
|●||any unit agreement under which the units will be issued;|
|●||any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and|
|●||whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.|
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any units. The preceding description and any description of units in the applicable prospectus supplement does not purport to be complete and is subject to and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the unit agreement and, if applicable, collateral arrangements and depositary arrangements relating to such units.
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers or through a combination of these methods. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including:
|●||the name or names of any underwriters, if any, and if required, any dealers or agents;|
|●||the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;|
|●||any underwriting discounts and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;|
|●||any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and|
|●||any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.|
|●||We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at:|
|●||a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;|
|●||market prices prevailing at the time of sale;|
|●||prices related to such prevailing market prices; or|
Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.
If underwriters are used in an offering, we will execute an underwriting agreement with such underwriters and will specify the name of each underwriter and the terms of the transaction (including any underwriting discounts and other terms constituting compensation of the underwriters and any dealers) in a prospectus supplement. The securities may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or directly by one or more investment banking firms or others, as designated. If an underwriting syndicate is used, the managing underwriter(s) will be specified on the cover of the prospectus supplement. If underwriters are used in the sale, the offered securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own accounts and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time. Unless otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the offered securities will be subject to conditions precedent and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the offered securities if any are purchased.
We may grant to the underwriters options to purchase additional securities to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price, with additional underwriting commissions or discounts, as may be set forth in a related prospectus supplement. The terms of any over-allotment option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for those securities.
If we use a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. The names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction will be specified in a prospectus supplement.
We may sell the securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, any agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.
We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.
In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters, dealers or agents may receive compensation from us or from purchasers of the securities for whom they act as agents in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agents. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of the securities, and any institutional investors or others that purchase securities directly and then resell the securities, may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts or commissions received by them from us and any profit on the resale of the securities by them may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act.
We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against particular civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to such liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.
In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties (including the writing of options), or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with such a transaction, the third parties may, pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. If so, the third party may use securities borrowed from us or others to settle such sales and may use securities received from us to close out any related short positions. We may also loan or pledge securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to third parties, who may sell the loaned securities or, in an event of default in the case of a pledge, sell the pledged securities pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement or in a post-effective amendment.
To facilitate an offering of a series of securities, persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the market price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than have been sold to them by us. In those circumstances, such persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by purchasing in the open market or by exercising the over-allotment option granted to those persons. In addition, those persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to underwriters or dealers participating in any such offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. Such transactions, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time. We make no representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above, if implemented, may have on the price of our securities.
All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any agents or underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities. There is currently no market for any of the offered securities, other than our common stock which is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market. We have no current plans for listing of the preferred stock, warrants or subscription rights on any securities exchange or quotation system; any such listing with respect to any particular preferred stock, warrants or subscription rights will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials, as the case may be.Any underwriters to whom securities are sold by us for public offering and sale may make a market in the securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice.
In order to comply with the securities laws of some states, if applicable, the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus will be sold in those states only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in some states securities may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and complied with.
The validity of the issuance of the shares of common stock and shares of preferred stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP, Las Vegas, Nevada. Lowenstein Sandler, LLP, New York, New York, will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.
The consolidated balance sheets of Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years then ended have been audited by EisnerAmper LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is incorporated herein by reference, which report includes an explanatory paragraph about the existence of substantial doubt concerning the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Such financial statements have been incorporated herein by reference in reliance on the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus constitutes a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 filed under the Securities Act. As permitted by the SEC’s rules, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, which form a part of the registration statement, do not contain all the information that is included in the registration statement. You will find additional information about us in the registration statement. Any statements made in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement concerning legal documents are not necessarily complete and you should read the documents that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement or otherwise filed with the SEC for a more complete understanding of the document or matter.
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read, without charge, and copy the documents we file at the SEC’s public reference rooms in Washington, D.C. at 100 F Street, NE, Room 1580, Washington, DC 20549. You can request copies of these documents by writing to the SEC and paying a fee for the copying cost. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference rooms. Our SEC filings are also available to the public at no cost from the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Act. This prospectus is part of the registration statement but the registration statement includes and incorporates by reference additional information and exhibits. The Securities and Exchange Commission permits us to “incorporate by reference” the information contained in documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents rather than by including them in this prospectus. Information that is incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus and you should read it with the same care that you read this prospectus. Information that we file later with the Securities and Exchange Commission will automatically update and supersede the information that is either contained, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus, and will be considered to be a part of this prospectus from the date those documents are filed. We have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and incorporate by reference in this prospectus:
|●||Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed on March 9, 2018;|
|●||Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed on April 19, 2018;|
|●||Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed on January 9, 2018, January 19, 2018 (as to Item 8.01 only), February 15, 2018, March 12, 2018, April 3, 2018 (as to Item 8.01 only); and|
|●||The description of our common stock contained in our Form 8-A, filed on July 23, 2013.|
We also incorporate by reference all additional documents that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the terms of Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are made after the initial filing date of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part until the offering of the particular securities covered by a prospectus supplement or term sheet has been completed. We are not, however, incorporating, in each case, any documents or information that we are deemed to furnish and not file in accordance with Securities and Exchange Commission rules.
You may request, and we will provide you with, a copy of these filings, at no cost, by contacting us at:
Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.
509 Madison Avenue, Suite 306
New York, New York 10022
Attention: Investor Relations
Telephone (212) 980-9155
20,940,000 Shares of Common Stock
Sole Placement Agent
The date of this prospectus is July 13, 2020