Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  



Interim financial statements


The unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 8 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included.


The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 contained herein has been derived from audited financial statements.


Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2019. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2018 included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 18, 2019.


Recent accounting pronouncements


In February 2016, the FASB established ASC Topic 842, Leases (Topic 842), by issuing ASU No. 2016-02, which requires lessees to recognize leases on-balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (ROU) model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet. Leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the statement of operations. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2019.


The new standard provides a number of optional practical expedients in transition. The Company has elected the ‘package of practical expedients’, which permit it not to reassess under the new standard its prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. The Company did not elect the use-of-hindsight or the practical expedient pertaining to land easements; the latter is not applicable to the Company.


The new standard has had a material effect on the Company’s financial statements. The most significant effects of adoption relate to (1) the recognition of new ROU assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet for operating leases; and (2) providing new disclosures about its leasing activities.


The new standard also provides practical expedients for an entity’s ongoing accounting. The Company elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for those leases that qualify, the Company will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities, and this includes not recognizing ROU assets or lease liabilities for existing short-term leases of those assets in transition. In connection with the adoption of this standard, the Company made changes to its disclosed lease recognition policies and practices, as well as to other related financial statement disclosures due to the adoption of this standard. The standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s results of operations or liquidity.


Upon adoption, the Company recognized operating lease liabilities of approximately $0.3 million based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments under current leasing standards for existing operating leases. The Company recognized corresponding ROU assets of approximately $0.3 million.


Risks and uncertainties


The Company’s primary efforts are devoted to conducting research and development of innovative pharmaceutical and biological products to address public health challenges. The Company has experienced net losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and expects these conditions to continue for the foreseeable future. Further, the Company does not have any commercial products available for sale and has not generated revenues, and there is no assurance that if its products are approved for sale, that the Company will be able to generate cash flow to fund operations. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Company’s research and development will be successfully completed or that any product will be approved or commercially viable.


Use of estimates


The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates include the useful life of fixed assets, assumptions used in the fair value of stock-based compensation and other equity instruments, and the percent of completion of research and development contracts.


Cash equivalents and restricted cash


The Company considers cash equivalents to be those investments which are highly liquid, readily convertible to cash and have an original maturity of three months or less when purchased. At both March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, cash equivalents, which consisted of money market funds, amounted to $10.1 million. Restricted cash at both March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 of approximately $100,000 collateralizes a letter of credit issued in connection with the lease of office space in New York City (see Note 8).


The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the condensed consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the condensed consolidated statement of cash flow:



March 31,


December 31,

    (in thousands)  
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 16,448     $ 25,034  
Restricted cash     100       100  
Total   $ 16,548     $ 25,134  


Property and equipment


Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the asset’s estimated useful life, which is three years for computer assets, five years for furniture and all other equipment and term of lease for leasehold improvements. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Depreciation and amortization expense for the quarters ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 was $9,000 and $15,000, respectively. All property and equipment is located in the United States and Ireland.


Intangible asset with indefinite lives


During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company purchased certain internet domain rights, which were determined to have an indefinite life. Identifiable intangibles with indefinite lives are not amortized but are tested for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that its carrying amount may be less than fair value. As of March 31, 2019, the Company believed that no impairment existed.




The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, operating lease liabilities, current and operating lease liabilities, noncurrent in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the transition date and commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. This is the rate the Company would have to pay if borrowing on a collateralized basis over a similar term to each lease. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.


Upon adoption, the Company recognized operating lease liabilities of approximately $0.3 million based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments under current leasing standards for existing operating leases. The Company also recognized corresponding ROU assets of approximately $0.3 million. In January 2019, the Company entered into a new operating lease, resulting in the Company recognizing an operating lease liability of approximately $0.4 million based on the present value of the minimum rental payments. The Company also recognized corresponding ROU assets of approximately $0.4 million.


Research and development costs


The Company outsources certain of its research and development efforts and expenses these costs as incurred, including the cost of manufacturing products for testing, as well as licensing fees and costs associated with planning and conducting clinical trials. The value ascribed to patents and other intellectual property acquired has been expensed as research and development costs, as such property related to particular research and development projects and had no alternative future uses.


The Company estimates its expenses resulting from its obligations under contracts with vendors, clinical research organizations and consultants and under clinical site agreements in connection with conducting clinical trials. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations, which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment flows that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided under such contracts. The Company accounts for trial expenses according to the timing of various aspects of the trial. The Company determines accrual estimates taking into account discussion with applicable personnel and outside service providers as to the progress or state of consummation of trials, or the services completed.


During the course of a clinical trial, the Company adjusts its clinical expense recognition if actual results differ from its estimates. The Company makes estimates of its accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to it at that time. The Company’s clinical trial accruals are dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of contract research organizations and other third-party vendors.


Stock-based compensation


All stock-based payments to employees and to nonemployee directors for their services as directors, including grants of restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and stock options, are measured at fair value on the grant date and recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations as compensation or other expense over the relevant service period.


Stock-based payments to nonemployees are recognized as an expense over the period of performance. Such payments are measured at fair value at the earlier of the date a performance commitment is reached, or the date performance is completed. In addition, for awards that vest immediately and are non-forfeitable, the measurement date is the date the award is issued.


Foreign currency translation


Operations of the Canadian subsidiary are conducted in local currency, which represents its functional currency. The U.S. dollar is the functional currency of the other foreign subsidiaries. Balance sheet accounts of the Canadian subsidiary were translated from foreign currency into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date and income statement accounts were translated at the average rate of exchange prevailing during the period. Translation adjustments resulting from this process were included in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.


Comprehensive income (loss)


Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity of a business during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner’s sources. It includes all changes in equity during a period except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners. Other comprehensive income (loss) represents foreign currency translation adjustments. All other comprehensive represents foreign currency translation adjustments.


Income taxes


Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the estimated future tax effects of net operating loss and credit carryforwards and temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their respective financial reporting amounts measured at the current enacted tax rates. The Company records a valuation allowance on its deferred income tax assets if it is not more likely than not that these deferred income tax assets will be realized.


The Company recognizes a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. As of March 31, 2019, the Company has not recorded any unrecognized tax benefits.


Per share data


Basic and diluted net loss per common share is calculated by dividing net loss, by the weighted average number of outstanding shares of common stock, adjusted to give effect to the 1-for-10 reverse stock split, which was effected on November 28, 2018 (see Note 4).


As of March 31, 2019, and 2018, there were outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 4,964,846 and 68,561 shares, respectively, of the Company’s common stock. In addition, the Company has issued to employees, directors and consultants, options to acquire shares of the Company’s common stock, of which 248,344 and 123,636 were outstanding at March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively (see Note 6). In computing diluted net loss per share for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, no effect has been given to such options and warrants as their effect would be anti-dilutive.