SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Interim financial statements
The unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 8 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included.
The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022 contained herein has been derived from audited financial statements.
Operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2023. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2022 included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 13, 2023.
Reverse Stock Split
On May 9, 2023, the Company filed a Certificate of Change with the Nevada Secretary of State, effective May 10, 2023. Pursuant to the Certificate of Change, the Company effected a 1-for-6.25 reverse stock split of its issued and outstanding shares of common stock. The Company accounted for the reverse stock split on a retrospective basis pursuant to ASC 260, Earnings Per Share. All authorized, issued and outstanding common stock, common stock warrants, stock option awards, exercise prices and per share data have been adjusted in these condensed consolidated financial statements, on a retrospective basis, to reflect the reverse stock split for all periods presented. Authorized preferred stock was not adjusted because of the reverse stock split.
Risks and uncertainties
The Company’s primary efforts are devoted to conducting research and development of innovative pharmaceutical and biological products to address public health challenges. The Company has experienced net losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and expects these conditions to continue for the foreseeable future. Further, the Company now has commercial products available for sale, and generates revenue from the sale of its Zembrace® SymTouch® and Tosymra® products, with no assurance that the Company will be able to generate sufficient cash flow to fund operations from its commercial products or products in development if and when approved. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Company’s research and development will be successfully completed or that any product will be approved or commercially viable.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates include, but are not limited to, provisions for product returns, coupons, rebates, chargebacks, discounts, allowances, inventory realization, the assumptions used in the fair value of stock-based compensation and other equity instruments, the percent of completion of research and development contracts, fair value estimates for assets acquired in business combinations, and assessment of useful lives of acquired intangible assets.
The Company accounts for business combinations in accordance with the provisions of ASC 805, Business Combinations and ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business. Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method, whereby the consideration transferred is allocated to the net assets acquired based on their respective fair values measured on the acquisition date. The difference between the fair value of these assets and the purchase price is recorded as goodwill. Transaction costs other than those associated with the issue of debt or equity securities, and other direct costs of a business combination are not considered part of the business acquisition transaction and are expensed as incurred.
Segment Information and Concentrations
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company views its operations and manages its business in one segment.
The Company has two products that each accounted for more than 10% of total revenues during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023. These products collectively accounted for 100% of revenues during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023.
As of September 30, 2023, accounts receivable from four customers accounted for 25%, 23%, 19% and 15% of total accounts receivable. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, revenues from four customers accounted for 25%, 21%, 18% and 14% of net product revenues, respectively. As of September 30, 2022, and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, the Company had no commercialized products and therefore had no accounts receivables or revenues.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The Company considers cash equivalents to be those investments which are highly liquid, readily convertible to cash and have an original maturity of three months or less when purchased. At September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, cash equivalents, which consisted of money market funds, amounted to $3.7 million and $116.3 million, respectively. Restricted cash, which is included in Other non-current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheet, at both September 30, 2023, and December 31, 2022, of approximately $244,000 and $241,000, respectively, collateralizes a letter of credit issued in connection with the lease of office space in Chatham, New Jersey and New York, New York (see Note 18). In addition, the Company has $758,000 of restricted cash held by vendors in escrow accounts for patient support services as of September 30, 2023.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the condensed consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows:
Accounts Receivable, net
Accounts receivable consists of amounts due from our wholesale and other third-party distributors and pharmacies and have standard payment terms that generally require payment within 30 to 90 days. For certain customers, the accounts receivable for the customer is net of prompt payment or specialty pharmacy discounts. We do not adjust our receivables for the effects of a significant financing component at contract inception if we expect to collect the receivables in one year or less from the time of sale. We provide reserves against accounts receivable for estimated losses that may result from a customer’s inability to pay. Amounts determined to be uncollectible are charged or written-off against the reserve. However, during the period covered by the Transition Services Agreement, the Seller has agreed to collect the accounts receivable on behalf of the Company and net settle within 45 days from each month-end. See note 10 for further details. The Company had no accounts receivable as of any prior period presented other than as of September 30, 2023.
As of September 30, 2023, the Company did not have an allowance for doubtful accounts. An allowance for doubtful accounts is determined based on the financial condition and creditworthiness of customers and the Company considers economic factors and events or trends expected to affect future collections experience. Any allowance would reduce the net receivables to the amount that is expected to be collected. The payment history of the Company’s customers will be considered in future assessments of collectability as these patterns are established over a longer period.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk include cash and cash equivalents, and accounts receivable. We attempt to minimize the risks related to cash and cash equivalents by investing in a broad and diverse range of financial instruments, and we have established guidelines related to credit ratings and maturities intended to safeguard principal balances and maintain liquidity. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to receivables, which are typically unsecured, are somewhat mitigated due to the wide variety of customers using our products, as well as their dispersion across different geographic areas.
We monitor the financial performance and creditworthiness of our customers so that we can properly assess and respond to changes in their credit profile. We continue to monitor these conditions and assess their possible impact on our business.
Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost determined by the weighted average cost method. The Company periodically reviews the composition of inventory in order to identify excess, obsolete, slow-moving or otherwise non-saleable items taking into account anticipated future sales compared with quantities on hand, and the remaining shelf life of goods on hand. If non-saleable items are observed and there are no alternate uses for the inventory, the Company records a write-down to net realizable value in the period that the decline in value is first recognized. Although the Company makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of forecasts of future product demand, any significant unanticipated decreases in demand could have a material impact on the carrying value of inventories and reported operating results. The Company’s reserves were approximately $21,000 as of September 30, 2023. The Company did not have inventory on hand prior to the acquisition of Zembrace and Tosymra on June 30, 2023.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the asset’s estimated useful life, which ranges from 20 to 40 years for buildings, 15 years for land improvements and laboratory equipment, three years for computer assets, five years for furniture and all other equipment and the for leasehold improvements. Depreciation on assets begins when the asset is placed in service. Depreciation and amortization expense for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, was $978,000 and $2.8 million, respectively, and $252,000 and $417,000, respectively, for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022. All property and equipment are located in the United States.
Intangible assets, net
Intangible assets deemed to have finite lives are carried at acquisition-date fair value less accumulated amortization and impairment, if any. Finite-lived intangible assets consist of developed technology intangible assets acquired in connection with the acquisition of certain products from Upsher Smith Laboratories, LLS (“USL Acquisition”) consummated on June 30, 2023 (See Note 8). The acquired intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets. Amortization expense for the three months ended September 30, 2023, was $238,000. The annual impairment assessment date will be June 30. No triggering events were identified during the nine months ended September 30, 2023.
During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company purchased certain internet domain rights, which were determined to have an indefinite life. Identifiable intangibles with indefinite lives, which are included in Intangible assets, net on the condensed consolidated balance sheet, are not amortized but are tested for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may be less than fair value. As of September 30, 2023, the Company believed that no impairment existed.
Goodwill represents the excess of the aggregate purchase price over the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired in a business combination. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill may be impaired. As of September 30, 2023, the Company has recognized goodwill in connection with the USL Acquisition consummated on June 30, 2023 (See Note 8).
The Company determines if an arrangement is, or contains, a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, operating lease liabilities, current and operating lease liabilities, noncurrent in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the transition date and subsequent lease commencement dates in determining the present value of lease payments. This is the rate the Company would have to pay if borrowing on a collateralized basis over a similar term to each lease. The operating lease ROU asset excludes lease incentives. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Lease expense for lease payments made under operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Convertible Preferred Stock
Preferred shares subject to mandatory redemption are classified as liability instruments and are measured at fair value. The Company classifies conditionally redeemable preferred shares, which includes preferred shares that feature redemption rights that are either within the control of the holder or subject to redemption upon the occurrence of uncertain events not solely within the Company’s control, as temporary equity (“mezzanine”) until such time as the conditions are removed or lapse.
The Company records and recognizes revenue in a manner that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company’s revenues primarily result from contracts with customers, which are generally short-term and have a single performance obligation - the delivery of product. The Company’s performance obligation to deliver products is satisfied at the point in time that the goods are received by the customer, which is when the customer obtains title to and has the risks and rewards of ownership of the products, which is generally upon shipment or delivery to the customer as stipulated by the terms of the sale agreements. The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods to a customer. The consideration promised in a contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both. Our contractual payment terms are typically 30 to 90 days.
Revenues from product sales, net of gross-to-net deductions, are recorded only to the extent a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized is not probable of occurring and when the uncertainty associated with gross-to-net deductions is subsequently resolved. Taxes assessed by governmental authorities and collected from customers are excluded from product sales. Shipping and handling activities are considered to be fulfillment activities and not a separate performance obligation.
Many of the Company’s products sold are subject to a variety of deductions. Revenues are recognized net of estimated rebates and chargebacks, cash discounts, distributor fees, sales return provisions and other related deductions. Deductions to product sales are referred to as gross-to-net deductions and are estimated and recorded in the period in which the related product sales occur. Accruals for these provisions are presented in the consolidated financial statements as reductions to gross sales in determining net sales, and as a contra asset within accounts receivable, net (if settled via credit) and other current liabilities (if paid in cash). Amounts recorded for revenue deductions can result from a complex series of judgements about future events and uncertainties and can rely heavily on estimates and assumptions. The following section briefly describes the nature of the Company’s provisions for variable consideration and how such provisions are estimated:
Chargebacks - The Company sells a portion of its products indirectly through wholesaler distributors, and enters into specific agreements with these indirect customers to establish pricing for the Company’s products, and in-turn, the indirect customers and entities independently purchase these products. Because the price paid by the indirect customers and/or entities is lower than the price paid by the wholesaler, the Company provides a credit, called a chargeback, to the wholesaler for the difference between the contractual price with the indirect customers and the wholesale customer’s purchase price. The Company’s provision for chargebacks is based on expected sell-through levels by the Company’s wholesale customers to the indirect customers and estimated wholesaler inventory levels as well as historical chargeback rates. The Company continually monitors its reserve for chargebacks and adjusts the reserve accordingly when expected chargebacks differ from actual experience.
Rebates - The Company participates in certain government and specific sales rebate programs which provides discounted prescription drugs to qualified recipients, and primarily relate to Medicaid and managed care rebates in the U.S., pharmacy rebates, Tri-Care rebates and discounts, specialty pharmacy program fees and other governmental rebates or applicable allowances.
Prompt-Pay and other Sales Discounts - The Company provides for prompt pay discounts, which early payments are recorded as a reduction of revenue and as a reduction in the accounts receivable at the time of sale based on the customer’s contracted discount rate. Consumer sales discounts represent programs the Company has in place to reduce costs to the patient. This includes copay buy down and eVoucher programs.
Product Returns - Consistent with industry practice, the Company offers customers a right to return any unused product. The customer’s right of return commences typically six months prior to product expiration date and ends one year after product expiration date. Products returned for expiration are reimbursed at current wholesale acquisition cost or indirect contract price. The Company estimates the amount of its product sales that may be returned by the Company’s customers and accrues this estimate as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue is recognized. The Company estimates products returns as a percentage of sales to its customers. The rate is estimated by using historical sales information, including its visibility and estimates into the inventory remaining in the distribution channel. Adjustments are made to the current provision for returns when data suggests product returns may differ from original estimates.
Research and Development Costs
The Company outsources certain of its research and development efforts and expenses these costs as incurred, including the cost of manufacturing products for testing, as well as licensing fees and costs associated with planning and conducting clinical trials. The value ascribed to patents and other intellectual property acquired has been expensed as research and development costs, as such property is related to particular research and development projects and had no alternative future uses.
The Company estimates its expenses resulting from its obligations under contracts with vendors, clinical research organizations and consultants and under clinical site agreements in connection with conducting clinical trials. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations, which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment flows that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided under such contracts. The Company accounts for trial expenses according to the timing of various aspects of the trial. The Company determines accrual estimates taking into account discussion with applicable personnel and outside service providers as to the progress or state of consummation of trials, or the services completed.
During the course of a clinical trial, the Company adjusts its clinical expense recognition if actual results differ from its estimates. The Company makes estimates of its accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to it at that time. The Company’s clinical trial accruals are dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of contract research organizations and other third-party vendors.
From time to time, the Company may enter into arrangements with governmental entities for the purpose of obtaining funding for research and development activities. The Company is reimbursed for costs incurred that are associated with specified research and development activities included in the grant application approved by the government authority. The Company classifies government grants received under these arrangements as a reduction to the related research and development expense in the same period as the relevant expenses are incurred. In August 2022, the Company announced that it received a Cooperative Agreement grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (“NIDA”), part of the National Institutes of Health, to support the development of its TNX-1300 product candidate for the treatment of cocaine intoxication. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, we received $0.4 and $2.3 million, respectively, for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, in funding as a reduction of related research and development expense.
All stock-based payments to employees and to nonemployees for their services, including grants of restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and stock options, are measured at fair value on the grant date and recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations as compensation or other expense over the requisite service period. The Company accounts for share-based awards in accordance with the provisions of the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation.
Foreign Currency Translation
Operations of the Company’s Canadian subsidiary, Tonix Pharmaceuticals (Canada), Inc., are conducted in local currency, which represents its functional currency. The U.S. dollar is the functional currency of the other foreign subsidiaries. Balance sheet accounts of the Canadian subsidiary were translated from foreign currency into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date and income statement accounts were translated at the average rate of exchange prevailing during the period. Translation adjustments resulting from this process were included in accumulated other comprehensive loss on the consolidated condensed balance sheets.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity of a business during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owners sources. It includes all changes in equity during a period except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners. Other comprehensive income (loss) represents foreign currency translation adjustments.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the estimated future tax effects of net operating loss and credit carryforwards and temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their respective financial reporting amounts measured at the current enacted tax rates. The Company records a valuation allowance on its deferred income tax assets if it is not more likely than not that these deferred income tax assets will be realized.
The Company recognizes a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the condensed consolidated financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. As of September 30, 2023, the Company has not recorded any unrecognized tax benefits. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties accrued on any unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense.
The computation of basic and diluted loss per share for the quarters ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 excludes potentially dilutive securities when their inclusion would be anti-dilutive, or if their exercise prices were greater than the average market price of the common stock during the period.
All warrants and preferred stock issued participate on a one-for-one basis with common stock in the distribution of dividends, if and when declared by the Board of Directors, on the Company’s common stock. For purposes of computing EPS, these warrants and preferred stock are considered to participate with common stock in earnings of the Company. Therefore, the Company calculates basic and diluted EPS using the two-class method. Under the two-class method, net income for the period is allocated between common stockholders and participating securities according to dividends declared and participation rights in undistributed earnings. No income was allocated to the warrants and preferred stock for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, and 2022, as results of operations were a loss for the periods.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies accounting for convertible instruments by removing major separation models required under current GAAP. The ASU also removes certain settlement conditions that are required for equity-linked contracts to qualify for the derivative scope exception, and it also simplifies the diluted earnings per share calculation in certain areas. The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2023, under the modified retrospective method of transition. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 did not impact the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The main objective of ASU 2016-13 is to provide financial statement users with more decision-useful information about an entity’s expected credit losses on financial instruments and other commitments to extend credit at each reporting date. To achieve this objective, the amendments in this update replace the incurred loss impairment methodology currently used today with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to develop credit loss estimates. ASU 2016-13 will be effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years, using a modified retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 and related updates as of January 1, 2023. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 did not impact the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef