SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Reverse Stock Split
On May 16, 2022, the Company filed a Certificate of Change with the Nevada Secretary of State, effective May 17, 2022. Pursuant to the Certificate of Change, the Company effected a 1-for-32 reverse stock split of its issued and outstanding shares of common stock. The Company accounted for the reverse stock split on a retrospective basis pursuant to ASC 260, Earnings Per Share. All authorized, issued and outstanding common stock, common stock warrants, stock option awards, exercise prices and per share data have been adjusted in these consolidated financial statements, on a retroactive basis, to reflect the reverse stock split for all periods presented. Authorized preferred stock was not adjusted because of the reverse stock split.
Risks and uncertainties
The Company’s primary efforts are devoted to conducting research and development of innovative pharmaceutical and biological products to address public health challenges. The Company has experienced net losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and expects these conditions to continue for the foreseeable future. Further, the Company does not have any commercial products available for sale and has not generated revenues, and there is no assurance that if its products are approved for sale, that the Company will be able to generate cash flow to fund operations. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Company’s research and development will be successfully completed or that any product will be approved or commercially viable. Moreover, the extent to which COVID-19 impacts the Company’s operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence at this time.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates include the assumptions used in the fair value of stock-based compensation and other equity instruments, and the percent of completion of research and development contracts.
Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The Company considers cash equivalents to be those investments which are highly liquid, readily convertible to cash and have an original maturity of three months or less when purchased. At December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, cash equivalents, which consisted of money market funds, amounted to $116.3 million and $120.4 million, respectively. Restricted cash, which is included in Other non-current assets on the consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 of approximately $241,000 and $240,000, respectively, collateralizes a letter of credit issued in connection with the lease of office space in Chatham, New Jersey and New York City (see Note 19).
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the consolidated statement of cash flows:
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the asset’s estimated useful life, which ranges from 20 to 30 years for buildings, 15 years for land improvements, and laboratory equipment, three years for computer assets, five years for furniture and all other equipment and term of lease for leasehold improvements. Depreciation on assets begin when the asset is available for its intended use. Depreciation and amortization expense for the years ended December 31, 2022, and 2021 was $1,253,000 and $50,000, respectively. The Company’s property and equipment is located in the United States.
Intangible assets with indefinite lives
During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company purchased certain internet domain rights, which were determined to have an indefinite life. Identifiable intangibles with indefinite lives, which are included in Other non-current assets on the consolidated balance sheet, are not amortized but are tested for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may be less than fair value. As of December 31, 2022, and 2021, the Company believed that no impairment existed.
The Company determines if an arrangement is, or contains, a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, lease liability, short term and lease liability, long term in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the transition date and subsequent lease commencement dates in determining the present value of lease payments. This is the rate the Company would have to pay if borrowing on a collateralized basis over a similar term to each lease. The operating lease ROU asset excludes lease incentives. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Lease expense for lease payments made under operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Convertible Preferred Stock
Preferred shares subject to mandatory redemption are classified as liability instruments and are measured at fair value. The Company classifies conditionally redeemable preferred shares, which includes preferred shares that feature redemption rights that are either within the control of the holder or subject to redemption upon the occurrence of uncertain events not solely within the Company’s control, as temporary equity (“mezzanine”) until such time as the conditions are removed or lapse.
Research and Development Costs
The Company outsources certain of its research and development efforts and expenses these costs as incurred, including the cost of manufacturing products for testing, as well as licensing fees and costs associated with planning and conducting clinical trials. The value ascribed to patents and other intellectual property acquired has been expensed as research and development costs, as such property is related to particular research and development projects and had no alternative future uses.
The Company estimates its expenses resulting from its obligations under contracts with vendors, clinical research organizations and consultants and under clinical site agreements in connection with conducting clinical trials. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations, which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment flows that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided under such contracts. The Company accounts for trial expenses according to the timing of various aspects of the trial. The Company determines accrual estimates taking into account discussion with applicable personnel and outside service providers as to the progress or state of consummation of trials, or the services completed.
During the course of a clinical trial, the Company adjusts its clinical expense recognition if actual results differ from its estimates. The Company makes estimates of its accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to it at that time. The Company’s clinical trial accruals are dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of contract research organizations and other third-party vendors.
From time to time, the Company may enter into arrangements with governmental entities for the purpose of obtaining funding for research and development activities. The Company is reimbursed for costs incurred that are associated with specified research and development activities included in the grant application approved by the government authority. The Company classifies government grants received under these arrangements as a reduction to the related research and development expense in the same period as the relevant expenses are incurred. In August 2022, the Company announced that it received a Cooperative Agreement grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (“NIDA”), part of the National Institutes of Health, to support the development of its TNX-1300 product candidate for the treatment of cocaine intoxication. No funding was received during 2022.
All stock-based payments to employees and to nonemployees for their services, including grants of restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and stock options, are measured at fair value on the grant date and recognized in the consolidated statements of operations as compensation or other expense over the requisite service period. The Company accounts for share-based awards in accordance with the provisions of the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation.
Foreign Currency Translation
Operations of the Company’s Canadian subsidiary, Tonix Pharmaceuticals (Canada), Inc., are conducted in local currency, which represents its functional currency. The U.S. dollar is the functional currency of the other foreign subsidiaries. Balance sheet accounts of the Canadian subsidiary were translated from foreign currency into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date and income statement accounts were translated at the average rate of exchange prevailing during the period. Translation adjustments resulting from this process were included in accumulated other comprehensive loss on the consolidated balance sheets.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity of a business during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owners sources. It includes all changes in equity during a period except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners. Other comprehensive income (loss) represents foreign currency translation adjustments.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the estimated future tax effects of net operating loss and credit carryforwards and temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their respective financial reporting amounts measured at the current enacted tax rates. The Company records a valuation allowance on its deferred income tax assets if it is not more likely than not that these deferred income tax assets will be realized.
The Company recognizes a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. As of December 31, 2022, the Company has not recorded any unrecognized tax benefits. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties accrued on any unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense.
The computation of basic and diluted loss per share for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 excludes potentially dilutive securities when their inclusion would be anti-dilutive, or if their exercise prices were greater than the average market price of the common stock during the period.
All warrants issued participate on a one-for-one basis with common stock in the distribution of dividends, if and when declared by the Board of Directors, on the Company’s common stock. For purposes of computing EPS, these warrants are considered to participate with common stock in earnings of the Company. Therefore, the Company calculates basic and diluted EPS using the two-class method. Under the two-class method, net income for the period is allocated between common stockholders and participating securities according to dividends declared and participation rights in undistributed earnings. No income was allocated to the warrants for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, as results of operations were a loss for the period.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies accounting for convertible instruments by removing major separation models required under current GAAP. The ASU also removes certain settlement conditions that are required for equity-linked contracts to qualify for the derivative scope exception, and it also simplifies the diluted earnings per share calculation in certain areas. The Company will adopt ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2023, under the modified retrospective method of transition. The Company does not anticipate the adoption of ASU 2020-06 to impact the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef